Biotechnology Maxwell Hunt

Cloning- the process of when an organism makes an identical copy of itself

How does it work? A clone works by duplicating itself without any genetic alteration or recombination

Is it currently used now or in the future? It can be used a lot in Nature

Are there any ethical issues involved with any of these? "The type of cloning that is the focus of much ethical controversy involves the generation of cloned embryos, particularly those of humans, which are genetically identical to the organisms from which they are derived, and the subsequent use of these embryos for research, therapeutic, or reproductive purposes." https://www.britannica.com/science/cloning

Benefits vs problems with this. Benefits would be being able to do things such as continuing a species that is about to be extinct.

How is technology used for each? "Reproductive cloning involves the implantation of a cloned embryo into a real or an artificial uterus." https://www.britannica.com/science/cloning

How is knowing the Human Genome helpful for each? Because it gives us the knowledge to know what type of experiments that we are getting ourselves into.

Genetically Modified Organisms-"organism whose genome has been engineered in the laboratory in order to favour the expression of desired physiological traits or the production of desired biological products" https://www.britannica.com/science/genetically-modified-organism

How does it work? "recombinant genetic technologies are employed to produce organisms whose genomes have been precisely altered at the molecular level, usually by the inclusion of genes from unrelated species of organisms that code for traits that would not be obtained easily through conventional selective breeding" https://www.britannica.com/science/genetically-modified-organism

Is it currently used now or in the near future? Right now it is being used

Are there ethical issues involved with in any of these? Yes because people believe think that it is wrong to chose the traits of an organism because we would be taking gods place in that factor

Benefits versus problems with each. Benefits are that you can choose what you want your children to look like but the problem is that people still have ethical issues

How is technology used for each? "recombinant genetic technologies are employed to produce organisms whose genomes have been precisely altered at the molecular level" https://www.britannica.com/science/genetically-modified-organism

How is knowing the Human Genome helpful for each? Because without knowing the human genome we wouldn't be able to do this

Stem Cell- a cell that can divide and produce offspring cells and can replace dying or damaged cells in different parts of the body.

How does it work? Scientists can take an embryonic stem cell and fertilize it then create the cell to become any type of cell that they need its use for things like treating a burn victims skin

Is it currently used now or in the near future? Was currently used in this time but was banned for ethical reasons but can but used again in future.

Are there ethical issues involved with in any of these? Yes because people think that this type of treatment is basically murder.

Benefits versus problems with each. Benefits are that it could lead to curing if genetic diseases but the problems are the ethical reasons.

How is technology used for each? "The most-studied embryonic stem cells are mouse embryonic stem cells, which were first reported in 1981. This type of stem cell can be cultured indefinitely in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a glycoprotein cytokine. If cultured mouse embryonic stem cells are injected into an early mouse embryo at the blastocyst stage, they will become integrated into the embryo and produce cells that differentiate into most or all of the tissue types that subsequently develop." https://www.britannica.com/science/stem-cell

How is knowing the Human Genome helpful for each? Without knowing the Human Genome this wouldn't be possible

DNA fingerprinting and crime scene investigation- method of identifying isolated variables of DNA

How does it work? Scientists retrieve samples of DNA such as skin, hair, or blood cells and create a DNA fingerprint from the samples.

Is it currently used now or in the near future? Is used now with crime investigations and has brought many criminals to justice.

Are there ethical issues involved with in any of these? Not really because of what it's impact has been in the criminal justice system.

Benefits versus problems with each. Benefits are its ability to be used in crime

How is technology used for each? "The enzymes produced fragments of varying lengths that were sorted by placing them on a gel and then subjecting the gel to an electric current (electrophoresis): the shorter the fragment, the more quickly it moved toward the positive pole (anode). The sorted double-stranded DNA fragments were then subjected to a blotting technique in which they were split into single strands and transferred to a nylon sheet. The fragments underwent autoradiography in which they were exposed to DNA probes—pieces of synthetic DNA that were made radioactive and that bound to the minisatellites. A piece of X-ray film was then exposed to the fragments, and a dark mark was produced at any point where a radioactive probe had become attached. The resultant pattern of marks could then be analyzed." https://www.britannica.com/science/DNA-fingerprinting

How is knowing the Human Genome helpful for each? Because the human genome is included in DNA and to be able to figure the fingerprints out you have to know about the human genome

PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)- method that enables the ability to make more than one copy of a specific segment of DNA

How does it work? Biochemist cause the reaction and capture large amounts of DNA from the reaction "The PCR technique is based on the natural processes a cell uses to replicate a new DNA strand. Only a few biological ingredients are needed for PCR. The integral component is the template DNA—i.e., the DNA that contains the region to be copied, such as a gene. As little as one DNA molecule can serve as a template. The only information needed for this fragment to be replicated is the sequence of two short regions of nucleotides (the subunits of DNA) at either end of the region of interest. These two short template sequences must be known so that two primers—short stretches of nucleotides that correspond to the template sequences—can be synthesized. The primers bind, or anneal, to the template at their complementary sites and serve as the starting point for copying. DNA synthesis at one primer is directed toward the other, resulting in replication of the desired intervening sequence. Also needed are free nucleotides used to build the new DNA strands and a DNA polymerase, an enzyme that does the building by sequentially adding on free nucleotides according to the instructions of the template." https://www.britannica.com/science/polymerase-chain-reaction

Is it currently used now or in the near future? It is used and has been used since 1983

Are there ethical issues involved with in any of these? No

Benefits versus problems with each. Helps diagnose genetic disease

How is technology used for each? Is done now by the "PCR Machine"

How is knowing the Human Genome helpful for each? Because it wouldn't be possible without it

Plasmids, Recombinant DNA, & Transgenic Organisms- "joining together of DNA molecules from two different species that are inserted into a host organism to produce new genetic combinations".

How does it work? By joining two different DNA molecules and putting them into one organism

Is it currently used now or in the near future? Now

Are there ethical issues involved with in any of these? No

Benefits versus problems with each. Creating new species in agriculture, medicine, etc

How is technology used for each? Used to collect DNA sample

How is knowing the Human Genome helpful for each? Helps identify parts of an organism

How does it work? By joining two different DNA molecules and putting them into one organism

Is it currently used now or in the near future? Now

Are there ethical issues involved with in any of these? No

Benefits versus problems with each. Creating new species in agriculture, medicine, etc

How is technology used for each? Used to collect DNA samples

How is knowing the Human Genome helpful for each? Helps identify parts of an organism

Paternity kits personal ancestry & transgenic organisms- links of family's through DNA

How does it work? Helps link family's together and keep family's with their past generations

Is it currently used now or in the near future? Now

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