Chemistry Concepts By: Emily miranda


Thermodynamics is the study of the motion; the branch of physical science that deals with the relations between heat and other forms of energy (such as mechanical, electrical, or chemical energy), and, by extension, of the relationships between all forms of energy .• The first law, also known as Law of Conservation of Energy, states that energy cannot be created or destroyed in an isolated system. •The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of any isolated system always increases. •The third law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of a system approaches a constant value as the temperature approaches absolute zero. Source: Boundless. No molecule movement , Zero law and its energy moves from high to low. Formula = q = m c /\T
Often we think that heat and temperature are the same thing. However, this is not the case. Heat and temperature are related to each other, but are different concepts. Heat is the total energy of molecular motion in a substance while temperature is a measure of the average energy of molecular motion in a substance.
The first law, also known as Law of Conservation of Energy, states that energy cannot be created or destroyed in an isolated system. The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of any isolated system always increases.

Calories And Specific Heat: 4.186 Joule = 1 calories. Another common energy unit is the calorie. The calorie, cal, is defined as the amount of energy (heat) needed to increase the temperature of one gram of water by 1oC. The kilocalorie, kcal, equals 1000 small calories.

For every one pound of post consumer waste 20 pounds of waste was produced. Companies will only recycle if it saves them money, the things we look to recycle is only a tiny amount of the trash.

Mass and energy are neither created nor destroyed during ordinary chemical reactions or physical changes. The mass of all the reactants is equal to the mass of all products, energy that goes into the reaction is equal to the energy that comes out.


Up-Cycling: reuse in such a way as to create a product of a higher quality or value than the original. Upcycling is another variation of recycling, that involves usable products from waste materials or unwanted items. Down-Cycling: a recycling practice that involves breaking an item down into its component elements or materials. Downcycling involves converting materials and products into new materials of lesser quality. Most recycling involves converting or extracting useful materials from a product and creating a different product or material
Plastic is a material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and can be molded into solid objects. Plastics are typically organic polymers of high molecular mass, but they often contain other substances. Plastics made from renewable materials such as polylactic acid from corn or cellulosics from cotton linters.

Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into reusable objects to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, energy usage, air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by decreasing the need for "conventional" waste disposal and lowering greenhouse gas emissions compared to plastic production


Soil is a resource and renewable and takes a long time to renew. Mature Soil: Have developed over a long time are arranged in a series of horizontal layers, soil horizons. Infiltration: the downward movement of water through soil. Leaching: Dissolving of minerals carrying them to lower layers. The soil type determines the degree of filtration and leaching. The depth of our O horizon depends on the amount of vegetation. Not all soils contain E horizon (A soil horizon is a layer generally parallel to the soil surface, whose physical characteristics differ from the layers above and beneath. Each soil type usually has three or four horizons.)

Plant nutrients

Fertilizer: chemical or natural substance added to soil or land to increase its fertility, Mainly inorganic. Compound fertilizers are made by mixing straight fertilizers or by chemical synthesis of other raw materials. You can chose the %'s for each of the plants., too much overuse of inorganic fertilizers destroy the soil. Manure is one of our biggest fertilizers. Rich and organic material help hold onto water.


Cohesion otherwise known as water's attraction to other water molecules, is one of the major properties of water. Water's polarity lends it to be attracted to other water molecules. The hydrogen bonds in water hold other water molecules together. Due to water's cohesiveness, Liquid water has surface tension. Water Pollution: Water pollution is any chemical, physical or biological change in the quality of water that has a harmful effect on any living thing that drinks or uses or lives (in) it. When humans drink polluted water it often has serious effects on their health. Water pollution can also make water unsuited for the desired use. The contamination of water bodies means water pollution. Thereby the abuse of lakes, ponds, oceans, rivers, reservoirs etc is water pollution. Pollution of water occurs when substances that will modify the water in negative fashion are discharged in it. Water treatment is, collectively, the industrial-scale processes that makes water more acceptable for an end-use, which may be drinking, industry, or medicine. Water treatment is unlike portable water purification that campers and other people in wilderness areas practice. When the water in our rivers, lakes, and oceans becomes polluted; it can be bad for our wildlife, make our drinking water unsafe, and threaten the waters where we swim and fish. When water becomes polluted and we either drink or swim in it, it can cause us no good. Infiltration is the process of water percolating through the soil and into cracks and permeable rocks. 97% of the water on earth is salt water, 87% is frozen, 1% of the planets water is available fresh.

Atoms And Ions

In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms. Although two centuries old, Dalton's atomic theory remains valid in modern chemical thought. Dalton's Atomic Theory 1) All matter is made of atoms. Atoms are indivisible and indestructible.
an atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons. An ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge. Ions can be created, by either chemical or physical means, via ionization.
Ionic Compounds Are Balanced. Table salt is an example of an ionic compound. Sodium and chlorine ions come together to form sodium chloride, or NaCl. The sodium atom in this compound loses an electron to become Na+, while the chlorine atom gains an electron to become Cl-.


Created with images by Ricardo's Photography (Thanks to all the fans!!!) - "_DSC1123-Edithdr" • ADD - "sunset afterglow landscape" • Comfreak - "fire flame candle" • jasonveal - "planet green natural earth" • lratz - "blue recycling box" • Imbecillsallad - "plastic" • PublicDomainPictures - "food seed soil" • Schill - "Case Study: Cilantro is more interesting than Basil.." • - "Ustic Kandihumult (Fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic)" • Macleay Grass Man - "Myriophyllum aquaticum habit1" • Sustainable sanitation - "Reuse of urine demonstration - fertilised and not fertilised basil experiment part II" • JDmcginley - "sunrise ocean sea" • clondike7 - "Water" • phylofigures - "1471-2148-8-103-1"

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