The Canadian Confederation Lauren Garrow

Order Of Provinces Joining The Canadian Confederation

The provinces that started Canada’s confederation were: Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. This took place in 1867. At that time, Ontario’s population was 1.6 million people. 150 years later Ontario’s population is 13.9 million people. 1867 was also the year that Toronto was officially made the capital of Ontario. 55 percent of people from Quebec voted for the Confederation of Canada and 45 percent of them voted against it that year. At the time New Brunswick was made up of Irish, Scottish, British, French, and other people. It had more Irish and Scottish people than the other provinces. In 1867 79 percent of the people that lived there were born in Canada. The others mainly moved from England, France, or other places. Three years later Manitoba and the Northwest Territories joined the Canadian confederation. Manitoba is the most eastern Prairie Province. There were 17 000 people living in the Northwest Territories, 16 000 of that population are various Aboriginal groups. In 1871 British Columbia joined the Confederation. Right before they joined the Canadian Confederation their economy collapsed. Luckily after they joined, Canada brought them out of their debt. Before P.E.I. joined Canada they were going to join the U.S.A. They ended up joining Canada in 1873. The Yukon Territory joined Confederation in 1898. 1898 was also when Yukon left the Northwest Territories to become it's own territory. Alberta was just a district of the Northwest Territories until it became it’s own province in 1905. In 1949 Newfoundland and Labrador joined Confederation. They are the most eastern province. The most recent addition to Canada’s confederation was Nunavut joining in 1999.

Fathers Of Confederation

This image is called, "Fathers Of Confederation"

The Fathers Of Confederation are men that have attended at least one of the Charlottetown, Quebec, or London Conferences. That was before Canadian Confederation. The Charlottetown Confederation was held from September 1 to September 9 in 1864. It was supposed to be only for the Maritimes (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, and Prince Edward Island) but the Province Of Canada found out about it and asked if they could come. The Maritimes let them come. During the Conference, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and New Brunswick seemed to like the Province Of Canada’s idea of the Canadian Confederation. Although P.E.I. didn’t like it as much. The Quebec Conference was held from October 12 to October 27 in 1864. They had planned it at the end of the Charlottetown Conference. The same provinces attended except Newfoundland only sent two viewers. They discussed the Canadian Confederation. The last Conference was held in London, England in December 1866. The purpose of this Conference was to get prepared for the Canadian Confederation in 1867. Now that you know all about the Conferences, I can tell you about who the Fathers Of Confederation (the people that ran and attended the conferences) were. Here is a list of all of them and the provinces that they represent; Adams Archibald (Nova Scotia), George Brown (Canada), Alexander Campbell (Canada), F.B.T. Carter (Newfoundland), George-Etienne Cartier (Canada), Edward Barron Chandler (New Brunswick), J.C. Chapais (Canada), James Cockburn (Canada), George Coles (PEI), Robert Dickey (Nova Scotia), Charles Fisher (New Brunswick), Alexander Galt (Canada), John Hamilton Gray (New Brunswick), John Hamilton Gray (PEI), T.H. Haviland (PEI), William Henry (Nova Scotia), W.P. Howland (Canada), John Johnson (New Brunswick), Hector Langevin (Canada), A.A. Macdonald (PEI), John A. Macdonald (Canada), Jonathan McCully (Nova Scotia), William McDougall (Canada), Thomas D'Arcy McGee (Canada), Peter Mitchell (New Brunswick), Oliver Mowat (Canada), Edward Palmer (PEI), W H Pope (PEI), John William Ritchie (Nova Scotia), Ambrose Shea (Newfoundland), William H. Steeves (New Brunswick), Sir Étienne-Pascal Taché (Canada), Samuel Tilley (New Brunswick), Charles Tupper (Nova Scotia), Edward Whelan (PEI), and R.D. Wilmot (New Brunswick). Those are the Fathers Of Confederation.

Aboriginal People Of Canada

How do the Aboriginal people fit into the confederation? Most of the Aboriginal people were given rights just like other Canadians, but there was one specific story that not a lot of people know about. There were a lot of Aboriginal people in Newfoundland and Labrador when they joined the confederation in 1949. When they joined, they made no special exceptions for the Aboriginal people. In fact, in the Terms Of Union for Newfoundland didn’t mention them at all. So, those Aboriginal peoples didn't have the same rights and privileges as everybody else did. Five years later Ottawa started creating a plan to help paying for their medical and other services. That plan expanded over the years, but their services never got to be as good as the Aboriginals elsewhere in the country.


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