1. Canada is a land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867, while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically, the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across the world's longest international border. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care, education, social services, and economic competitiveness, as well as responding to the particular concerns of predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.
2. As of July 2016 the population is 35,362,905. Compared to the other countries population, Canada is 39th.
3. Economy: As a high-tech industrial society in the trillion-dollar class, Canada resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards. Canada's GDP (gross domestic product) ranking is 17th compared to the rest of the countries.
4. The unemployment rate for youths ages 15-24 is 13.5% total, 15% males and 11.9% for females. Canada's comparison to the other countries is ranked 81st for its unemployment rates.
5. Main Industries: Transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum, and natural gas.
6. Government type: Federal parliamentary democracy (Parliament of Canada) under a constitutional monarchy. A federal parliamentary democracy, or simply a parliamentary democracy, is a government where parliament, while voted in by the people, is sovereign and responsible for the formation of the government. The parliament is responsible for passing legislature and monitoring the executive government.
7. Captiol: name: Ottawa
geographic coordinates: 45 25 N, 75 42 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November
note: Canada has six time zones
8. Administrative divisions include 10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon*
9. Canada became independent on july 1st 1867 (union of British North American colonies).
10. Canada's constitution is made up of unwritten and written acts, customs, judicial decisions, and traditions dating from 1763; the written part of the constitution consists of the Constitution Act of 29 March 1867, which created a federation of four provinces, and the Constitution Act of 17 April 1982; several amendments to the 1982 Constitution Act, last in 2011 (2016)
11. Canada has a common law system except in Quebec, where civil law based on the French civil code prevails.
12. Must be 18 years of age in order to vote.
13. Executive Branch:
Head of State: Queen ELIZABETH II ; represented by Governor General David JOHNSTON
Head of Government: Prime Minister Justin Pierre James TRUDEAU
Cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister usually from among members of his own party sitting in Parliament
Elections/Appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a 5-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition in the House of Commons generally designated prime minister by the governor general
14. Legislativre branch is bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (105 seats; members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister and can serve until age 75) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes; 338 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve a maximum of 4-year terms
15. Supreme Court of Canada consists of the chief justice and 8 judges. Judicial branch chief justice and judges appointed by the prime minister in council.