African Kingdoms Devin haynes

Ancient Ghana

RELIGIONS

  • the main religion in ancient Ghana was Islam

TRADING SYSTEM

  • The main source of wealth for the Empire of Ghana was the mining of iron and gold.
  • Iron was used to produce strong weapons and tools that made the empire strong.
  • Gold was used to trade with other nations for needed resources like animals, tools, and cloth.
  • They established trade relations with the Muslims of Northern Africa and the Middle East.
  • Long caravans of camels were used to transport goods across the Sahara Desert.

CULTURE

  • Islam greatly spread throughout Ghana and influenced the culture of ancient Ghana.
Ghana lies south of the Sahara Desert and is mostly savanna grasslands. Major rivers in the region are the Gambia River, Senegal River, and the Niger River. All of the rivers served as the means of transportation and trade.
  • The main source of wealth for the Empire of Mali was the mining of iron and gold.
  • the main religion in ancient Mali was Islam. Iron was used to produce strong weapons and tools that made the empire strong.
  • Gold was used to trade with other nations for needed resources like animals, tools, and cloth.
  • They established trade relations with the Muslims of Northern Africa and the Middle East.
  • Long caravans of camels were used to transport goods across the Sahara Desert.
The Songhai Empire was the largest emoire last of the three major pre-colonial empires to emerge in West Africa. From its capital at Gao on the Niger River, Songhai expanded in all directions until it stretched from the Atlantic Ocean (modern Senegal and Gambia) to what is now Northwest Nigeria and central Niger. Gao, Songhai’s capital, which remains to this day a small Niger River trading center, was home to the famous Goa Mosque and the Tomb of Askia, the most important of the Songhai emperors. The cities of Timbuktu and Djenne were the other major cultural and commercial centers of the empire. “Songhai Empire (Ca. 1375-1591) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed.” Songhai Empire (Ca. 1375-1591) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed, www.blackpast.org/gah/songhai-empire-ca-1375-1591. Accessed 14 Mar. 2017.
Despite common belief to the contrary, Aksum did not originate from one of the Semitic Sabaean kingdoms of southern Arabia but instead developed as a local power. At its apogee (3rd–6th century ce), Aksum became the greatest market of northeastern Africa; its merchants traded as far as Alexandria and beyond the Nile River. Aksum continued to dominate the Red Sea coast until the end of the 9th century, exercising its influence from the shores of the Gulf of Aden to Zeila on the northern coast of Somaliland (modern Somalia and Djibouti). During the 2nd and 3rd centuries ce its growth as a trading empire increasingly impinged on the power of the kingdom of Meroe, the fall of which was brought about in the 4th century by an Aksumite invasion. During the 4th century the kings of Aksum were Christianized—thus becoming both politically and religiously linked to Byzantine Egypt. At the same time, they extended their authority into southern Arabia. In the 6th century an Aksumite king reduced the Yemen to a state of vassalage. In the latter part of the 6th century, however, the Persians invaded South Arabia and brought Aksumite influence there to a close. Later the Mediterranean trade of Aksum was ended by the encroachment of the Arabs in the 7th and 8th centuries. Gradually, Aksumite power shifted internally to the Agau (Agaw, or Agew) people, whose princes shaped a new Christian line in the Zagwe dynasty of the 12th–13th century.

works cited page

“Songhai Empire (Ca. 1375-1591) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed.” Songhai Empire (Ca. 1375-1591) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed, www.blackpast.org/gah/songhai-empire-ca-1375-1591. Accessed 14 Mar. 2017.

The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. “Aksum.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 12 Feb. 2015, www.britannica.com/place/Aksum-ancient-kingdom-Africa. Accessed 14 Mar. 2017.

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Devin Haynes
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Created with images by 300td.org - "Mali 207" • amanderson2 - "Dhaka of Daga this shows the clay and grit used to cover the walls an ancient cement of sorts Zimbabwe"

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