Digital Twins take center stage
At the center of this digital advancement in many industries are digital twins, a digital representation of a physical asset, process, or system, as well as the engineering information that allows us to understand and model their performance.
Digital twins enable asset-centric organizations to converge their engineering, operational, and information technologies for immersive visualization and analytics visibility. Made possible by advancing technology—such as the convergence of 3D/4D visualization, reality modeling, mixed reality, and geotechnical engineering—digital twins provide an immersive and holistic view of infrastructure assets above-ground and below-ground.
To gain a clearer understanding of digital twins, I offer seven ways in which city governments can benefit from advancing technology to improve efficiencies.
Image courtesy City of Helsinki
1. Gather insights that improve city infrastructure
While several cities have developed digital footprints using reality modeling, they are often no more than visually appealing 3D models. This is because different departments use different systems to manage data associated with their specific workflows and infrastructure assets. The data exists in a variety of formats – CAD, BIM, and GIS, engineering models, spreadsheets, databases, documents, real-time and historic IoT data streams, photos and point clouds. The data constantly changes, which makes it difficult to access and know that you have the right information at the right time.
By implementing an open, connected data environment (CDE), you can gain quick access to semantically rich models and know that they are accurate and up to date.
Advancing BIM and GIS to 4D with Digital Twins
Digital twin is a digital representation of a physical asset, process or system. It can be continuously surveyed from multiple sources. And it can generate insights for predictability and performance optimization.
Infrastructure digital twins have become possible due to the convergence of 3D/4D visualization, reality modeling, mixed reality (XR), and geotechnical engineering—enabling an immersive and holistic view of infrastructure assets. A digital twin incorporates different types of data repositories – including drawings, specifications, documents, analytical models, photos, reality meshes, IoT feeds, and enterprise resource and enterprise asset management data. To realize the potential of digital twins, there needs to be a standardized framework to efficiently connect different information systems.
The purpose of iModel.js is to provide a way forward for developing that common framework. Using these capabilities, city stakeholders can maximize operational budgets by extending the life of assets and equipment, making trusted information available whenever and wherever it is needed to support city infrastructure and services.
2. Improve collaboration across a vast ecosystem of city stakeholders, creating additional value for cities and residents
All stakeholders — from city departments, to the city ecosystem, to the city’s residents — benefit from a collaborative approach to information. Highways, bridges and tunnels, rail, and other transit infrastructure are built, operated, and maintained within and between cities. So, it makes sense that these groups would benefit from effective collaboration. City operations, planning, and economic development, as well as emergency services and utility operators, all need to collaborate and share information with transportation agencies to improve decision making that results in the support of each group’s initiatives.
Thus, with a holistic approach to consuming and sharing information, infrastructure owners know that they have the latest information on existing conditions before projects begin. Moreover, by having the most accurate information, stakeholders can be more proactive when they plan for interruptions and communicate transportation and utility projects to the public, helping them avoid project areas. Additionally, this information enhances the city’s ability to deliver on its promise of greater transparency, while communicating its vision for mobility and other infrastructure improvements.
Most cities experience a constant and simultaneous stream of projects at varying stages of completion, from transportation to utilities to buildings. For each project, the infrastructure owners and developers must consider the subsurface environment.
The creation and curation of subsurface digital twins involves modeling the underground environment – geology, hydrology, chemistry, engineering properties – and the underground infrastructure – structures, tunnels, and utility networks. There are cautionary tales of the risk associated with this underground environment and the aftermath, where geotechnical teams are challenged to make right what is wrong, such as the sinking San Francisco Millennium Tower. Subsurface digital twins can be vital for assessing and managing risks throughout an infrastructure project, including through operations and maintenance.
3. Improve mobility and safety in public spaces – even when hosting large events
Digital twins help optimize how space is used to improve planning and designing of buildings, as well as to improve safety, efficiency, and revenue. They also provide users with the ability to simulate and analyze foot traffic on or in infrastructure assets, including rail and metro stations, stadiums, shopping malls, and airports. Using digital twins, engineers and designers can accurately test designs and operational and commercial plans to enhance footfall, wayfinding, crowd management, safety, and security.
4. Improve urban planning and project visualization
With this technology, urban planners can stream large-scale digital twins online to visualize projects spanning entire cities down to the street level using a combination of terrain models, reality meshes, and semantic 3D city models. The technology allows urban planners to achieve a higher level of detail in their plans. Building owners also play a unique role in helping cities advance digitally. When intelligent models are associated with individual buildings, urban planners can merge these models into a citywide digital twin, making the information about the city even more intelligent. Using digital twins to engage developers and building owners during planning helps to influence the new or renovated space through incentives and zoning to ensure what is developed improves the residents’ quality of life.
5. Make infrastructure resilient: predict, respond, and recover from acute shocks
Extreme hydrometeorological events, combined with rapid urbanization and inadequate draining substructures, trigger flooding and cause major damage to infrastructure, while impacting human safety and weakening the economy. To avoid flood risks and minimize the impact of a heavy rainfall, urban planners need to implement flood resilience technology that helps them comprehensively manage flood risks and rapidly recover from any disruptions caused by the event.
With these systems, accurate and reliable risk and analysis data can be sent to agencies involved in flood preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation. They also help resilience teams improve their decision making by using actionable insights to anticipate early warnings and promote response, increasing public safety and decreasing infrastructure damage. The systems help minimize service interruption, avoid additional mitigation cost, and improve response time. In addition, utilities can use information from the scenarios to define mitigation strategies, including cost/benefit analysis of changes to utility systems to mitigate future system issues.
The effects of earthquakes are also significant and might include loss of life and damage to buildings and transportation infrastructure, as well as sub surfaces. Digital twins provide planning and response stakeholders with a platform to visualize, analyze, measure, and assess damages from a safe distance, while they identify what tactics they can use for recovery and appropriate egress routes.
6. Engage the public and create a feedback loop
Digital twins also provide city planners with processes that help them get quick buy in on projects and for communicating plans in a comprehensive and visually aesthetic and compelling way. This communication helps residents understand how these plans impact their lives and provides information about ongoing projects to improve their safety and perhaps avoid commuting congestion near project sites. With digital twin technology, city planners can provide a fast, easy, and visual way to successfully communicate, promote, and share city projects in an interactive way to gain buy-in from residents and attract investors. This sharing includes delivering digital experiences (mixed reality and wearables), or visualization and crowdsourcing through devices such as web, mobile, touchscreens, and digital billboards.
Image courtesy of City of Helsinki
7. Embrace open data initiatives
Open data initiatives allow others the ability to conceive, develop, and deliver services with trusted city and infrastructure information
Many cities with digital city initiatives focus on open data environments. Also, many engage with universities, researchers, and other developers to offer apps and services to citizens via an open data initiative.
Image courtesy of City of Helsinki