Manifest Destiny Pages 345-367

Rivalry in the Northwest

  • The Oregon Country was a huge area located north of California, between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. It included all of what are now Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, plus parts of Montana and Wyoming. The region also contained about half of what is now the Canadian province of British Columbia.
  • In the early 1800s, four nations claimed the vast, rugged land known as the Oregon Country.

Adams-Onis Treaty

  • Many Americans wanted control of Oregon in order to gain access to the Pacific Ocean.
  • In 1818 Adams worked out an agreement with Britain for joint occupation.

Mountain Men in Oregon

  • Fur traders had been the first Americans to take up the challenge of living in the Oregon Country.
  • At first the fur merchants trades with the Native Americans.
  • Over time, the mountain men could no longer make a living by trapping.
What did America gain from the Adams-Onis Treaty?

The Adams-Onis Treaty defined the boundary between the U.S. and Spain.

Oregon and Manifest Destiny- Marcus and Narcissa Whitman

  • In the 1830s, Americans began traveling to the Oregon Country to settle. Economic troubles in the East and reports of Oregon's fertile land drew many people.
  • Among the first settlers were Dr. Marcus Whitman and his wife, Narcissa.

Along the Oregon Trail

  • The Whitman massacre was a shocking event, but it did little to stop the flood of pioneers on their way to Oregon.
  • Drawn by reports of fertile Oregon land, and driven by economic hard times in the East, many Americans took the trail. These pioneers were called emigrants-people who leave their country-because they left the United States to go to Oregon.
  • In 1843 about a thousand emigrants made the journey. Tens of thousands more would follow in the years ahead.

American seeks its Manifest Destiny

  • Since colonial times, many Americans had believed their nation's mission should be to serve as a model of freedom and democracy, In the 1800s that vision changed.
  • Many believed that the nation's mission was to spread freedom by settling the entire continent.
  • In the 1840s, New York newspaper editor John O'Sullivan expressed in more specific words the idea of a national mission. O'Sullivan declared it was America's "Manifest Destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us."

"Fifty-four Forty or Fight"

  • Many Americans wanted the United States to take over all of Oregon.
  • Polk's Whig opponent, Henry Clay, did not take a strong position on the Oregon issue. Polk won the election because Whig support was not united behind Clay.
  • A firm believer in Manifest Destiny, Polk was focused on acquiring Oregon.
"How did Polk's view differ from Clay's in the 1844 election?"

They had different ideas.

How did Florida become a state?

President John Tyler signed the Florida statehood bill. Florida became the twenty-seventh state in the United States on Mach 3, 1845.


  • Tallahassee became the territorial capital in 1824.
  • Many planters from Virginia, Georgia, and the Carolina had worn out their soil with years of heavy use. They left their old plantations for new land in Florida.
  • In Florida the planters established cotton and tobacco plantations, especially in northern Florida and the narrow strip in the northwest called the region of central Florida.

The Territory Grows

  • In 1837 the census for the territory of Florida reported that 48,000 people lived there.
  • Florida voters chose 56 people to attend the constitution convention in St. Joseph, a small port city on the Gulf Coast.

Statehood for Florida

  • President John Tyler signed the Florida statehood bill.
What caused the population of Florida to grow?

Many planters from Virginia, Georgia, and the Carolina had worn out their soil with years of heavy use. They left their old plantations for new land in Florida. Here, the planters established cotton and tobacco plantations, especially in northern Florida and the narrow strip in the northwest called the Panhandle. In addition, small farms and cattle ranches dotted the region of central Florida. The leading planters of northern Florida played a major role in the government and politics of the area.


  • In 1821 Mexico won independence from Spain.
  • At first, Mexico encouraged Americans to settle in Texas.
  • In 1835 Mexican General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna took a army into Texas to punish the rebels.

The Alamo

  • The Texans had only about 180 soldiers to take on Santa Anna's army of several thousand.
  • For 13 days, through several attacks, the defenders of the Alamo kept Santa Anna's army at bay with rifle fire.
  • Only a few women and children and some servants survived to tell the battle.

Texas Declares Its Independence

  • During the siege at the Alamo, Texan leaders met at the town of Washington-on-the-Brazos.
  • Texan leaders set up a temporary government.

The Lone Star Republic

  • In September 1836, Texans elected Sam Houston as their president.
  • Andrew Jackson refused their request. The addition of another slave state would upset the balance of slave and free states in Congress. For the moment, Texas would remain an independent country.

Texas Becomes a State

  • Many Texans wanted to join the United States.
  • The situation changed with the 1844 presidential campaign. Manifest Destiny was a popular idea at the time. The South wanted Texas.
Why did it take a long time for the United States to annex Texas?

They didn't want to start a war with Mexico.

War With Mexico

How did the Santa Re Trail benefit the New Mexico Territory?

To increase New Mexico's trade.

The New Mexico Territory

  • In the early 1800s, the land called New Mexico was a vast region between the Texas and California territories.
  • Mexico, including New Mexico, won its independence from Spain in 1821.
  • William Becknell, the first American trader to reach Santa Fe, arrived in 1821.
how did William Becknell influence the American settlement of New Mexico?

William Becknell, the first American trader to reach Santa Fe, arrived in 1821. Becknell's route came to be known as the Santa Fe Trail. The Santa Fe Trail became a busy trade route. Americans soon followed Becknell.

California's Spanish Culture

  • Spanish explorers and missionaries from Mexico settled in California in the 1700.
  • The missions aimed to convert Native Americans to Christianity and the Spanish way of life.

Conflict Begins

  • President James K. Polk was determined o get the California and New Mexico territories from Mexico.
  • Relations between the two countries were not friendly.
  • Polk sent a representative, John Slidell, to Mexico to propose a deal.

A War Plan

  • Polk planned to defeat Mexico by accomplishing three goals. First, the United States would drive Mexican forces out of Texas. Second, it would seize New Mexico and California. Finally, American forces would advance into Mexico and capture the capital, Mexico City.
  • By 1847, Zachary Taylor had accomplished the first goal.

California's Uprising

  • Even before war with Mexico officially bean, American settlers in northern California had begun an uprising.
  • The Bear Flag Republic did not exist for long.

Peace Terms

  • Defeated on February 2, 1848, Mexico's leaders signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
  • With Oregon and the former Mexican territories under the American flag, the dream of Manifest Destiny had been realized.
What did America gain from the Mexican War?

The United States gained Mexican Territory.

California and Utah

How did the discovery of gold help California?

It brought people from around the world to California to try and find gold.

California Gold Rush

  • When gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill in 1848, people from all over the world traveled to California in search of riches.
  • Americans made up about 80 percent of the forty-niners.

The Californios

  • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war with Mexico and made Californios, Mexicans living in California, citizens of the United States.

The Life of a Forty-Niner

  • As people rushed to a new area to look for gold, they built new communities.
  • Cities also flourished during the Gold Rush.

Gold Rush Society

  • Mining camps contained men of all backgrounds but few women.

Economic and Political Progress

  • The Gold Rush had lasting effects on California. Rapid growth brought the need for better government.
How did the California Gold Rush lead to the expansion of cities?

People from all over the world went to California to search for gold which lead people to move their families there.

A Religious Refuge in Utah

  • While the Gold Rush was transforming California, change was also taking place in nearby Utah. There, Mormons, or members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, were building a new community and fulfilling their vision of the godly life.

The Mormons Move On

  • The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was among a number of religious movements that sprang up during the religious awakenings of the 1830s and 1840s.
  • Smith published The Book of Mormon in 1830, announcing that it was a translation of words written on golden plates that he had received from an angel.
  • Smith hoped to use his visions to build an ideal society.

A Haven in the Desert

  • The Mormon migration began in 1846.
  • In 1847 the Mormons finally reached the Great Salt Lake.
  • In 1848 the United States acquired the Slat Lake area from Mexico after the Mexican War.
Why did the Mormons have to keep moving from one place to another?

They keep moving place to place to find somewhere to settle down. They were very religious and wanted to find somewhere there were other people like them.

Made with Adobe Slate

Make your words and images move.

Get Slate

Report Abuse

If you feel that this video content violates the Adobe Terms of Use, you may report this content by filling out this quick form.

To report a Copyright Violation, please follow Section 17 in the Terms of Use.