Civil Rights Terms By Simi & Walter

The Dred Scott Decision 1857

  • Dred Scot was a Slave that had a master that moved to a territory that was considered free at the time.
  • He ended up going to Supreme Court because he wanted to be granted freedom, but was denied
  • In the End the Supreme Court Justice ruled that he was denied freedom because he wasn't considered an american citizen for being a slave.

The Emancipation Proclamation 1863

  • More than 3 million slaves were freed in the Confederate States to fight in the Civil War
  • These orders were given by President Linclon

The 13th Amendment 1865

  • This amendment banned slavery after the Civil War ended

The 14th Amendment 1868

  • This amendment allowed former slaves along with every other person born in the US to be fully privileged citzens

The 15th Amendment 1870

  • This amendment allowed all men citizens ,including African Americans, to vote

Plessy vs. Ferguson 1869

  • Homer Plessy was an African American Man
  • He was sitting in the train car for white people only
  • When people asked him to move to the Jim Crown Car Plessy said they were invading the 13th and 14th Amendment
  • In the end this case went to Supreme Court but the Judge ruled that making Plessy move to the Jim Crow Car was okay because he was an African American and he was still given the same accommodations as the whites.
  • (Same accommodations had a broad definition)

Brown vs. the Board of Education 1954

The Montgomery Bus Boycott

December 5th, 1995 - December 20th, 1956

The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a boycott from December 5th, 1955 to December 20th, 1956 that protested segregation on buses. It was viewed as one of the first large scale demonstrations for Civil Rights. The cause of the Boycott was Rosa Parks not giving up her seat to a white man, which caused her to be arrested.

Little Rock Nine

September, 1957

In the September of 1957, nine black students enrolled at an All- White School. In order to stop these students from attending classes, Governor Orval Faubus called in the Arkansas National Guard to prevent the students from entering. In order to remedy this, President Dwight D. Eisenhower had Federal Troops escort the "Little Rock Nine" into their first day of classes.

Sit-Ins

1960

Early in the year 1960, a Non-Violent Protest by Young African Americans at a lunch counter sparked a wave of Sit-Ins at lunch counters and other similar places across the South. Although many of these protesters were spat on, dunked with cold water, and arrested for disorderly conduct and trespassing, these sit-ins forced a rule change on these Lunch Counters.

Ruby Bridges

1960

Ruby Bridges was a six year old girl when she was chosen to be the youngest of a group of African American Students who would desegregate Southern Schools. She was in First Grade when she started going to a previously All-White School. She had to be escorted by Federal Marshals on the way there, and many White Parents pulled their kids out of the school.

Freedom Riders

May 4th, 1961

On May 4th, 1961, a group of 13 Civil Rights Activists launched the Freedom Rides, a bunch of bus rides used to protest segregation in Bus Terminals. Despite facing violence from white protesters, this campaign caused in Interstate Transportation Committee to issue regulations prohibiting segregation in bus and train stations.

James Meredith

1962

James Meredith was the first black Student at the University of Mississippi in 1962. He was rejected from the school twice, until the NAACP filed suit that the only reason that he was rejected was because of his color and nothing else. Afterwards, The Governor tried to step up a law to bar his entry but ultimately failed.

Martin Luther King: I Have A Dream

August 28th, 1963

The I have a Dream Speech was a famous Speech performed by Martin Luther King Jr. on August 28th, 1963 on the Steps of the Lincoln Memorial. It is seen as one of the most inspirational speeches of all time and is remembered by his first line “I have a Dream.” It was delivered to a crowd of over 250,00 people and encouraged the President to pass laws against discrimination.

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