Sulfur's symbol is an uppercase S. It is a non-metal, specifically a non-metal that usually reacts with chlorine gas to create sodium chloride, better known as, table salt. Sulfur has been around for a long time. Ancient cultures in India, Greece, and China knew about sulfur. In the Bible, it is referred to as 'brimstone.' A French chemist named Antoine Lavoisier discovered, in 1777, that sulfur is an element and not a compound. The word, 'sulfur' comes from the latin word, 'sulphur' meaning brimstone.
Atomic Number : 16
Atomic Mass : 32.065
Number of Protons : 16
Number of Neutrons : 16
Number of Electrons : 16
The stable isotopes are (32S (95.02%), 33S (0.75%), 34S (4.21%), and and 36S (0.02%).
Sulfur is found naturally in areas around hot springs, geysers, and volcanic regions. They are found in nature as iron pyrites, which is iron sulfide, galena, which is lead sulfide, and epsom salts, which is magnesium sulfate.
Sulfur is used in the vulcanisation of black rubber, and it black gunpowder. Most sulfur is used in the production of sulfuric acid. The most significant of the uses of sulfuric acid is to make phosphates for fertilizers.
Mercaptans are a family of organosulfur compounds. Some are added to natural gas supplies because of their distinctive smell, so that gas leaks can be detected easily. Others are used in silver polish, and in the production of pesticides and herbicides.
Sulfites are used to bleach paper and as preservatives for many foodstuffs. Many detergents come from sulfates. Calcium sulfate (gypsum) is mined on the scale of 100 million tonnes each year for use in cement and plaster.