Iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, rare earth elements, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower
Agricultural land: 6.8% arable land 4.7%; permanent crops 0.5%; permanent pasture 1.6% forest: 34.1% other: 59.1% (2011 est.)
Continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains
Metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities
People and society
35,362,905 (July 2016 est.) Country comparison to the world: 39
Population growth rate
0.74% (2016 est.)
Age structure and Dependency
0-14 years: 15.44% Male 2,799,758 and Female 2,661,645 15-24 years: 12.12% Male 2,204,127 and Female 2,080,587 25-54 years: 40.32% Male 7,231,200 and Female 7,028,692 55-64 years: 13.94% Male 2,443,452 and Female 2,484,788 65 years & over : 18.18% Male 2,863,114 female 3,565,542 (2016 est.)
Total dependency : 47.3%
Youth dependency: 23.5%
Elderly dependency: 23.8%
Urban population: 81.8% of total population (2015)
Rate of urbanization: 1.22% annual rate of change (2010-2015 est.)
Total population: 81.9 years (2016 est.)
Male: 79.2 years
Female: 84.6 years
Total fertility rate
1.6 children born/woman (2016 est.)
10.4% of GDP (2014)
Gross domestic product (GDP): $1.674 trillion (2016 est.) Country comparison to the world: 17
GDP (official exchange rate): $1.532 trillion (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $46,200 (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate: 7.1% (2016 est.)
Poverty line: 9.4% - This is the Low Income Cut-Off, a number is found in many comparable economies; Canada does not have an official poverty line (2008 est.)
Exports: $402.4 billion (2016 est.)
Commodities: motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum
External debt: $1.608 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
Fixed lines - total subscriptions: 15.902 million
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 45 (July 2015 est.)
Mobile cellular - total: 29.39 million
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 84 (July 2015 est.)
Internet users: total: 31.053 million
Percent of population: 88.5% (July 2015 est.)
How Canada is perceived around the world
CBC reached out to 7,000 people who teach courses about Canada.
They are called Canadianists - 15 of them spoke out
Europe's thoughts on Canada
Michelle Gadpaille from Slovenia spoke out saying Slovenians think warm thoughts, when thinking of Canada due to being linked by family.
Slovenians is not taught much about Canada.
Michelle asked her university students what they thought about Canada, most students responded with the answer of “you” referring to Michelle.
Irene Salverda, president of the Associations for Canada Studies in the Netherlands said that many of her friends refer to Canada as the European version of America
Canada reminds them of Europe due to its natural beauty.
The Dutch are drawn to the down-to-earth Canadian spirit.
Many in Amsterdam will not help an American, if you state you’re Canadian, they are more than happy to help.
Slovaks hear almost nothing about Canada, so many know nothing of the country, let alone Canada’s role in current international affairs.
Lead to a positive image for Canada, built by political leadership.
Ewa Urbaniak-Rybicka teaches Canadian, American and English literature in Konin, Poland. Ewa’s students thoughts on Canada are drawn from its postmodern country and their influence on major historical events during the 20th century.
Several of her students see Canada as a country with immigrants cherishing its multicultural views, and religions.
Many are engaged by Canada and its ability to help with conflict in Northern Ireland move towards a better quality of life.
Asia's thoughts on Canada
Lihua Yang a teacher of political science in China, said it was assumed that Canada was a place without an influential political system or foreign policy.
Canada hopes that we can further engage herself in defending fundamental rights, such as freedom, justice and democracy in the world.
Canada and India share common features including, engagement in regards to trade and investments.
Canada is a model for immigrant society filled with different voices and several forms of cultural expression including native peoples this has been an important subject in classrooms across German universities.
Canada conjures up a positive image in the Chinese mind.
Canada's image changed decades ago has changed into a more dynamic, diverse country.
The curriculum taught in China about Canada is focused on Chinese immigrants, bilingualism and multiculturalism, this is seen as the best, choice in solving ethnic conflicts and social harmony.
Canada’s multiculturalism is significant in todays diverse world.
Latin Americas Views on Canada
Canada is so important in Latin America especially in Venezuela, in order for convalesce.
Venezuela is grateful for the attention that Canadian Parliament has given to their political prisoners' wives and their testimonies about violence along with the lack of human rights.
Canada’s role in Latin America is the peacemaker, particularly in Venezuela.
Many Venezuelans have emigrated to Canada particularly in the last 10 years. Many students are taught that Canada is about multiculturalism.
As more and more Mexicans begin to join and become Canadianists, more Mexicans are becoming interested in issues related to Canada.
Canada's policies on environmental issues are seen by Mexican authorities and their society as an example to follow.
Past years in Mexico, with help from the Canadian government, we have been building a strong international community of Canadianists.
With budget cuts to Mexican associations of Canadian Studies, the interest of students with academics in Canadian studies has declined.
Americas thoughts on Canada
Earl Fry a Political Science teacher said surveys have showed that Americans favour Canadians more than any other country in the world.
Americans know little about Canadians. More Canadians visit the U.S. than Americans visit Canada, although the U.S. has nine times the population.
Canada has developed its own identity in academics due to several students studying Canadian society, geography, law, literature and language.
Canada has became a prime interest in the academic world.
What is Canada’s biggest strength? What is its biggest weakness?
Canada’s biggest strength is diversity. Canada has learned how to be strong and to favour our differences, this has led to large success for our Country. As Canadians we have made the commitment to incorporate diversity and inclusion. This approach to immigration and multiple different cultures coming together has made our country a happier, and more successful place. As of 2016 we have had a population growth rate of 0.74% majority coming from the recent immigration of refugees due to problems in the middle east. Today over half the population is born outside out the Country, due to this six languages are now spoken around the city. A day after the Paris attacks, a mosque in Peterborough was set on fire, what was suggest to be hate crime. Following the fire, the community had raised more than $100,000 to help the Muslim community rebuild. Along with the rebuild, members of local religious communities welcomed them a place to pray. We as a country have proven that a successful country can be made on the basis of mutual respect. One of our biggest weaknesses is Canada’s low fertility rate. 2000 was a record low for fertility which that led to ten years declining in the number of births. The current fertility rate is 1.5 children per one women from the age of 15 to 49 which is far below the replacement rate of 2.1. We are now among the lowest birth rates in the world, below France and Britain, but still remaining higher than Japan or Germany. Total of 327,882 babies were born in 2000, the lowest number since 1946. The possible demographic effects may mean there will be fewer women in future to have the children that we need
What is Canada’s most pressing issue or concern?
Canada’s most pressing issue or concern is our environmental issues particularly our Oil sands, Oil sand pipelines and Coal exports.With our high production of oil sands there has been realized high amounts of high-carbon process when extracting oil sands found in Northern Alberta. This has become the single largest source of greenhouse gas emissions. Oil and gas now amount for one-quarter of all of Canada's greenhouse gas emissions. Much of the oil extracted in Alberta's oil sands reserves have been shipped by pipelines. Oil companies have continued to expand extraction operations they will need also need to expand their capacity to ship oil. Canada is also responsible for large amounts of coal exports. With the continued burning of coal has lead to it being on of the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in the world, when compared to other fossil fuels. Coal has also been know to produce several toxic pollutants such as mercury.
Compared to others, should Canadians be proud of their country?
Canadians should be proud to be Canadians because, we realize that we all may be of different backgrounds and races we are all Canadian, and thats what makes us close. Canada has mad a name for itself even though we have a larger neighbour, we have proven our army worthy. We have so much green space through the many Provincial and National parks that help to conserve all of the natural land Canada has to offer. We aren’t completely urbanized so we are a clean country, with freshwater lakes and Oceans on all borders. We have a very prosperous economy, with fishing, wheat, and meat. We have many Canadians who have given back to their Country and the world in many ways such as David Suzuki, and of course Terry Fox. These people and many more have worked to make Canada what it is. Among all we are peaceful and respectful country and as a result we have never had a big war on home soil, and are known for being a peace keeping country. Many seek refuge in Canada, and we have many immigrants every year, because Canada is a desirable place to live.
Is Canada “better off” compared to other countries? What areas is Canada better/not better? Why?
This is because Canada espouse to the United States is not full of discrimination or years of bigotry, this is especially true now that Donald Trump is president and with the several who support his plan on the wall, and his racial, sexist and xenophobic comments towards his own citizens. Canada has become more cultured than it’s neighbor with its array of cultural mosaic. With the recent political views in the United States that are pushing forefront on the American culture its unfortunate to know the political views that are out that, and circling the minds of American citizens. As Canadians we yearn for the USA to become more progressive like on important topics such as gay marriage, universal health care and stricter gun laws. When Trudeau chose the gender-equal cabinet the response to questions about his reasoning is something we hope for our neighbours.