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Urine RE & ME SUSMITA CHAKRABARTY

Urinalysis

Urinalysis is a series of tests on your urine, or pee. Doctors use it to check for signs of common conditions or diseases. Other names for it are urine test, urine analysis, and UA.

Why Is Urinalysis Done?

You may have a urinalysis as part of a routine check of your overall health, like during your yearly physical. Urinalysis is one way to find certain illnesses in their earlier stages. They include:

  • Kidney disease
  • Liver disease
  • Diabetes

Your doctor may want to test your urine if you’re getting ready to have surgery or are about to be admitted to the hospital. Urinalysis can be part of a pregnancy checkup, too.

If you have symptoms of a kidney or urinary tract problem, you may have the tests to help find out what the problem is.

You might also have this test regularly if you have a condition such as a kidney disease that needs to be watched over time.

How Does a Urinalysis Work?

There are three ways to analyze urine, and your test might use all of them.

One is a visual exam, which checks the color and clarity. If your pee has blood in it, it might be red or dark brown. Foam can be a sign of kidney disease, while cloudy urine may mean you have an infection.

A microscopic exam checks for things too small to be seen otherwise. Some of the things that shouldn’t be in your urine that a microscope can find include:

  • Red blood cells
  • White blood cells
  • Bacteria
  • Crystals (clumps of minerals, a possible sign of kidney stones)

The third part of urinalysis is the dipstick test, which uses a thin plastic strip treated with chemicals. It’s dipped into your urine, and the chemicals on the stick react and change color if levels are above normal. Things the dipstick test can check for include:

  • Acidity, or pH. If the acid is abnormal, you could have kidney stones, a urinary tract infection (UTI), or another condition.
  • Protein. This can be a sign your kidneys aren’t working right. Kidneys filter waste products out of your blood.
  • Glucose. A high sugar content is a marker for diabetes.
  • White blood cells. These are a sign of infection or inflammation, either in the kidneys or anywhere else along your urinary tract.
  • Nitrites. This means that there is an infection with certain kinds of bacteria.
  • Bilirubin. If this waste product, which is normally eliminated by your liver, shows up, it may mean your liver isn’t working properly.
  • Blood in your urine. Sometimes this is a sign of infections or certain illnesses.

Routine Urinalysis

The urine routine test is a combination of tests that are performed on urine and is one of the most frequently conducted tests. It comprises of the physical, chemical and microscopic examination of urine.

When Do You Expect Results?

24 to 36 Hours

Why Get Tested:

This test is conducted to screen for any kidney diseases and infections of the urinary tract. It also helps to identify diseases that cause abnormal breakdown of products that may be passed from the body in the urine. The Urine Routine test reports the following:-Presence of sugars, ketones, and proteins

  • Presence of bilirubin
  • pH, or relative acidity or alkalinity
  • Physical color and appearance
  • Presence of blood and its components like RBC, hemoglobin & WBC
  • Specific gravity

Reason to take Routine Urine Test:

  1. Burning on urination
  2. Frequency to urinate
  3. Bloody or cloudy urine
  4. Symptoms of a urinary tract infection or bladder infection
  5. Symptoms of kidney failure
  6. Chills
  7. Fever
  8. Back pain
  9. High blood pressure
  10. Edema or swelling
  11. Loss of appetite
  12. Nausea, Vomiting
  13. Fatigue, Sleepiness
  14. Itching, Twitching
  15. Metallic taste in the mouth

Preparations Needed For Urine Routine Test

No special preparations required.

Sample Required?

Specimen type: Urine , Specimen collection procedure : Mid-Stream Urine (not at the beginning and not at the end) should be collected. Care must be taken to clean the genitals well before collection.

Follow these steps to get the sample:

  1. Initial or the first few drops of the urine should be discarded in the toilet.
  2. Mid-stream urine sample should be collected in the sterile container provided.
  3. Latter part or the end of the urine should not be collected.
  4. Cap the container. Keep it in the refrigerator or a cool place during the collection period.

Microscopic Urinalysis

Does this test have other names?

Microscopic urine analysis, microscopic examination of urine

What is this test?

This test looks at a sample of your urine under a microscope. It can see cells from your urinary tract, blood cells, crystals, bacteria, parasites, and cells from tumors.

This test is often used to confirm the findings of other tests or add information to a diagnosis.

Why do I need this test?

You may need this test to help diagnose:

  1. Kidney disease
  2. Urinary tract infection
  3. Cancer
  4. Reactions to medicines
  5. Prostate infection
  6. Liver disease
  7. Viral infection
  8. Yeast infection
  9. Parasitic infection

What other tests might I have along with this test?

You may have other tests on your urine sample. These may include:

  1. Checking the color and odor
  2. Measuring the level of dissolved solid substances in the urine
  3. Checking the acidity
  4. Testing for protein, sugar, bilirubin, and other substances that may be a sign of different diseases
  5. You may also have blood tests.

What do my test results mean?

Test results may vary depending on your age, gender, health history, the method used for the test, and other things. Your test results may not mean you have a problem. Ask your healthcare provider what your test results mean for you.

Here is a sample of what certain results may mean:

  1. A high number of red blood cells may mean that you have kidney disease, urinary tract infection, a drug reaction, or cancer.
  2. A high number of white blood cells may mean that you have an infection or inflammation in your urinary tract.
  3. A high number of cells called eosinophils may mean that you have problems in your urinary tract.
  4. A high number of certain kidney cells may mean that you have kidney damage.
  5. Substances created in the kidney, called casts, can suggest different diseases.
  6. Abnormal crystals formed from amino acids and certain medicines can be a sign of a variety of health problems.

How is this test done?

This test is done with a urine sample. Your healthcare provider may ask you to provide a sample at a specific time of day, such as first thing in the morning. Or you may collect a sample at random. For this test, you may also need to collect all the urine you make over a certain period, such as 24 hours. For this sample, you empty your bladder completely first in the morning without collecting it. Note the time. Then collect your urine every time you go to the bathroom over the next 24 hours. You will collect it in a container that your healthcare provider or the lab gives you.

Does this test pose any risks?

This test poses no known risks.

What might affect my test results?

Certain medicines can alter the appearance of urine under the microscope, including:

  1. Sulfamethoxazole
  2. Ampicillin
  3. Dyes used in imaging tests
  4. High doses of medicines that contain salicylate
  5. Your results may also be affected by:
  6. Stool in your urine sample
  7. Menstrual blood
  8. Vaginal medicine