Southern Africa Pages 377-396

Landforms and Bodies of water

  1. Southern Africa is bordered by the Indian Ocean.
  2. Several of the regions countries are fairly large.
  3. The country of Madagascar occupies the worlds fourth largest island also called Madagascar.


  1. The northern plateaus are largely forested farther south the plateaus are covered mainly by grasslands
  2. In Angola the escarpment a steep cliff between a higher and lower surface runs parallel to the Atlantic Coast and continues through Namibia.
  3. South of the Kalahari Desert much of the rest of Southern Africa is covered by a huge plateau that slopes from about 8,000 feet in the East to 2000 feet in the west

Bodies of Water

  1. The Zambezi which stretches for 2,200 miles is the regions longest river.
  2. The Orange River is Southern Africa's second-largest river.
  3. Lake Kariba Southern Africa's second-largest lake is really a reservoir or an artificial lake created by a dam.

Which type of land form is common in Southern Africa?

Answer : Plateaus


  1. Nearly all of the regions climates have distinct seasons with certain seasons receiving most of the rain.
  2. Each area gets as much as 70 inches of rain per year.

Temperate Zones

  1. Annual rainfall varies from 8 inches (20 cm) in some areas to 24 inches (61 cm) in others.
  2. Lesotho Swaziland and eastern south Africa including the Including the Indian Ocean coastline are much wetter.

Desert Regions

  1. Temperatures along the coast are mild however with daily averages ranging from 48 to 68.
  2. The Kalahari's location farther inland than the Namib and dry air make its temperatures more extreme than in the Namib

Why are temperatures in Southern Africa's tropical countries generally not hot?

Answer : Rainfall

What natural resources are found in Southern Africa and why are they important

Answer : Mineral Resources

South Africa's Resources

  1. It is the worlds largest producer of diamonds both gems and industrial diamonds or diamonds used to make cutting or grinding tools.
  2. This industry has attract workers and investments from other countries.

Energy Resources

  1. Mozambique has large deposits of natural gas as well as does Angola.
  2. The regions rivers are another resource for providing power.

Minerals and Other Resources

  1. Diamonds that are used are called blood diamonds.
  2. Malawi's most important natural resource is its fertile soil.


  1. Southern Africa is known for its variety of animal life.

How does deforestation affect the energy supply in the region?

deforestation is the process of getting ride of trees therefore when the trees are gone the people using the energy from the trees will no longer have energy from the trees.

History of southern Africa

  1. Trade among the groups flourished.

Great Zimbabwe

  1. Great Zimbabwe was the largest of many similar cities throughout the region.
  2. Great Zimbabwe was abandoned in the 1400s possibly because its growing population exhausted its water and food resources.

The Mutapa Embire

  1. Like Great Zimbabwe the Mutapa Empire thrived o the gold it mined and traded for goods from China and India.
  2. They gradually gained control over the empire and forced its people to mine gold for them.

Other Kingdoms

  1. Shaka was killed in 1828 but his empire survived until the British destroyed it in Zulu War of 1879
  2. In the early 1800s one king allied with the British on the nearby island of Mauritius to prevent the French of taking control over Madagascar

European Colonies

  1. The first settlements were trading posts and supply stations at which ships could stop on their way to and from Asia

Clashes in South Africa

  1. The Africans did not like the Dutch pushing into their land and soon they started fighting over it.

The Union of South Africa

  1. In the 1600s the Boers discovered diamonds in their territory

Colonialism in other Areas

  1. In Southern Africa Britain gained control over what is now Malawi Zambia Zimbabwe and Botswana.

Which European country claimed the most territory in Southern Africa in the 1800s?”


Independence and Equal Rights

  1. Swaziland and Mauritius gained their freedom in 1968 and Seychelles in 1976.

The End of Portuguese Rule

  1. By 1974 the Portuguese had grown tired of these bloody and expensive wars.

The Birth of Zimbabwe

  1. Rhodesias African population demanded the right to vote.

Equal Rights in South Africa

  1. The new government leaders began enacting laws that created a system called apartheid
  2. The governments violent response into peaceful protests caused the ANC to turn to attend conflict
  3. By the 1970s apartheid related events in South Africa had gained world attention.

Life in Southern Africa - The People of the Region

  1. the population of South Africa is overwhelming black African.

Population Patterns

  1. Southern Africas countries vary widely in population.
  2. Population depends on heavily on geopraphy and econimies
  3. South Africa and Angola are about the same size.

Ethnic and Culture Groups

  1. About 4 milion Tswana form the major population group in Botswana.
  2. Groups like the Chewa Tsonga Ambo and San illustrate an importnt point about Southern Africas history.
  3. The Chewa and their territory for example were split among four colonies

Religion and Languages

  1. In Angola however nearly half the population continues to hold traditional indigenous religious beliefs.
  2. Swaziland Zambia Malawi and Mozambique also have large Muslim populations

“What is the main religion practiced in Southern Africa?


Life in Southern Africa

  1. As in other regions of Africa life differs from city to country side

Urban Life

  1. Zimbabwe has grown to more than 1.5 million as have Lusaka Zambia and Maputo Mozambique.

Urban Growth and Change

  1. The regions cities have a mix of many impressive downtowns in all of Africa.
  2. Outside the central city are the white neighborhoods where about 20 percent of the citys population live.
  3. Johannesburg role as a mining manufacturing and financial center has attracted people from around the world.

Family and Traditional Life

  1. People om the countryside practice subsistence farming growing the food they need to survive.
  2. Wood and ivory carving are art forms that are generally practiced by men.

“Where in their countries do most Southern Africans live?”

in houses made by them.

Southern Africa Today

  1. Southern Africas wealth of mineral wildlife and other resources may be the key to its future.

Health Issues

  1. In the majority of countries most people do not live beyond age 50 to 55


  1. Southern Africa has some of the highest rates of infant death in the world.
  2. A major cause of death in children and adults is HIV/AIDS.
  3. The high incidence of HIV/AIDS has disrupted the labor force by depriving countries of needed workers

Progress and Growth

  1. Angola and Mozambique continue to rebuild the cities and towns industries railroads and communications systems that have been damaged or destroyed by years of civil war.
  2. Tourism at national parks has grown with the establishment of stable democratic governments.

Help from Other Countries

  1. Other countries and international and organizations have also made huge investments in the region
  2. Foreign investment workers and tourists have also returned to south Africa as it continues to recover from the effects of apartheid

“Why is life expectancy in Southern Africa so low?”

Because of diseases


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