Chapter 4-11 Group Project Matt Farber, Christian Weiss, Paul Orbon, Will Dean, Russell Macías, Jake heller, Conor Breen Brenadan Shanahan
1. What is the relationship in the Trinity? Did God have to create humanity?
The relationship between the Trinity is God the Creator, the Son the Savior, and the Holy Spirit the Sanctifier. God created everything, including the Holy Spirit and the Son. The son saved us through his death and resurrection. The Holy Spirit helps us grow in the faith. The three persons make up one god to distinguish Catholic monotheism from other monotheistic religions such as Judaism and Islam. God did not have to create humanity, He presides over everyone and everything, so He could have done whatever he wanted to do.
2. Why is humanity the crowning creation? What makes us different?
Humanity is seen as the “crowning creation” of God because He created us in His image. Humans are more like God than any other species that God created. God created humans with free will and the ability to reason, unlike anything else He created. Free will allows humans to choose between good and evil and the choice to believe in God or not.
3) What are the titles for Jesus, what does each mean and why is each important
Jesus has many titles. Jesus itself is a word means “God saves” in Hebrew. The name is significant because saving humanity was Jesus’s ultimate goal when being sent to the Earth, which is why God chose to give that name to His son. The title “Christ” is a more formal way of referring to Jesus. The word comes from the Greek translation of one of Jesus’s other titles, Messiah. Messiah is a Hebrew word that means “anointed one” and was given to Jesus because the Jewish people saw him as the savior that they had been promised. One of Jesus’ other titles is the Son of God. This typically describes anyone who has a special relationship with God, but Jesus is unique because He is the only true and eternal child of God, and he is a member of the Holy Trinity. The Greek term “Lord” is used to describe Jesus because the people believed it to be a more respectful alternative to saying “Yahweh”, which the people thought was too sacs to even be said by man. By calling Jesus “Lord”, we acknowledge His divinity and show our worship and obedience to Him.
4) What is the difference between an Apostle and a Disciple? Who is the first Disciple?
The first disciples, Peter and Andrew, were called to follow Jesus at the Sea of Galilee. A disciple is any follower of Jesus who lived their lives by His example. The word disciple means “student or follower” and these people followed Jesus’s examples and shared in His mission. There were a select twelve disciples with whom Jesus shared a special relationship. These twelve men were called the Apostles. While Jesus had many disciples, He had only the twelve Apostles, and these Apostles are succeeded today by the bishops.
6) Why can you not separate personal and communal faith?
You can not separate personal faith, which consists of believing or not believing, and communal faith, which is no one being able to believe alone, for many reasons. One reason is that everybody is taught the faith by another person, therefore there must be communal faith for personal faith to exist. The fact that the faith has been passed down by many different people for over 400 years shows that both personal and communal faith are necessary.
7) Why can you not separate the Incarnation, Resurrection, and Ascension?
You cannot separate the Incarnation, Resurrection, and Ascension because they are three of the ultimate mysteries of faith. The Incarnation represents Jesus coming down to earth from heaven taking on his human life, the Resurrection showing Jesus’s victory over death and the cross, and the Ascension portraying Jesus rising up to the right hand of the father in Heaven.
8) Why are the above considered mysteries, and what do we know about them?
We know that the three mysteries, Ascension, Incarnation, and Resurrection, are mysteries because we know they happened but we cannot fully understand them by reason alone. We know that they could've only happened if Jesus was fully human and fully God. We know he rises from the dead three days after in the Resurrection, but not how he did it. We know he rose from Earth to Heaven in the Ascension, but not how. Not knowing how Jesus did these things make these events mysteries.
9) What is the Assumption and who is Assumed into Heaven?
The Assumption is the event of Mary being assumed, body and soul, into heaven. She was rewarded this for being the first human to participate in Jesus’ Resurrection. She is thought to wait for us, her children, to join her in the Resurrection and in everlasting life.
10) What is the problem with how the Jews viewed the Law?
The Jews were correct in thinking that God was the king of all creation. They were wrong about the law because they believed the laws given to them at Mount Sinai were God’s instruments for ruling his people. There were two main groups of people who had slightly different beliefs. The Pharisees were one group who believed that anyone who disobeyed the law wouldn't be allowed into the Kingdom of God. The other Jews believed that only the Jews would be welcomed into the kingdom of God.
11) What does Christ do in the Beatitudes and the Sermon on the Mount?
In the Sermon on the Mount Jesus summarizes his teachings. He says, “I have come not to abolish the law, but to fulfill it.” He is telling the Jewish people that he wasn't trying to go against them but to help them achieve salvation. He also challenges the people to take the law given to them further than it is written. For example, the law says you shall not commit adultery but Jesus encourages people to not have lust. A second example is Jesus tells us to love our enemy and not just our neighbor. In the beatitudes, Jesus tells everyone that they can have a part in the church and be a part of the kingdom of heaven. For example, he says, “Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.” He is saying even the sinners or people who are rejected in society will be equal to the pure of heart and the merciful people.
12) How do the above re-envision the Law?
At the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus gave the people The Beatitudes and challenged the people to take the law further. There he reveals the true meaning of the Jewish Law. He took the 6th commandment (thou shalt not kill) and he brought it further saying that people should not have vengeful anger at all. He also advanced the 7th commandment (Thou shalt not commit adultery) and added that we should not be lust. He then clarified the 9th commandment (thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor) and said that not only should we love our neighbors, we should also love and pray for our enemies.
13) Why can we not separate Christ's Humanity from his Divinity? What is this called?
We cannot separate Christ’s Humanity from his Divinity because he was fully God and fully Human. He felt joy, sadness, experienced temptation, and felt pain, but he also had a divine intellect and will. This is called the Incarnation, which is a mystery that we will never be able to fully understand. God made Jesus fully human without losing his divine nature.
14) What are the parables and why did Christ use them?
Parables are stories Jesus told us that had a surprising twist; he told them to shock the people listening into a new way of seeing things. Christ used these stories to really convince the people who listened to follow the way that he preached.
15) Explain two of the parables.
A: One of Jesus’ parables was the parable of the prodigal son where a son basically leaves with his father’s money which was his inheritance and returns after losing it all sinning and wasting it. When he comes back, instead of not accepting him and disowning him, the father accepts him back by having a feast, slaughtering the fattened calf, and giving him a nice robe and sandals. The older brother who didn't accept his brother and was wondering why he didn't get treated like this after being loyal, is like the religious authorities at the time who believed someone who sins shouldn't be forgiven. The father who welcomes the son back is what Jesus believes in which is the fact you should be merciful. The lesson is that anyone who repents is welcome into the kingdom of god.
Another parable is the Parable of the Good Samaritan where people pass a Jewish man who is injured because he was attacked and basically assaulted. The people were a priest, a Levite, and a Samaritan, and the Samaritan is the one who comes and helps. A Samaritan was considered not a real Jew and was hated by Jews yet he was the only one who helped. The point of this parable was to show that even people who aren't Jews can be members of the kingdom of god.
16) What are the Characteristics of Faith?
A: The characteristics of faith are: faith is grace, a supernatural gift from god; faith is certain; faith seeks understanding; faith is not opposed to science; faith is necessary for salvation; faith is enabled by grace; faith is the beginning of eternal life.
17) What is the relationship between Pilate and the Jewish authorities concerning Christ's death?
A: The relationship between Pilate and Jewish authorities concerning Christ’s death is that Jewish authorities wanted him dead while Pilate didn't really see what he did wrong and didn't see why Jesus should die. The Jewish authorities are afraid of a rebellion against their teachings. The Jewish authorities tried to convince Pilate that Jesus deserved to die because he would start a rebellion against Rome . This ultimately caused Pilate to put Jesus to death because he felt pressure to stop a potential violent uprising or revolution in Rome. The Jewish authorities didn't all necessarily get along with Rome and Pilate but they used him in this case to put Jesus to death, who they didn't like.
18) What evidence do we have for the Resurrection? Which is most prevalent? Which is least prevalent?
We have copies of books and letters that can be traced back to within a few centuries of Jesus’ earthly life. And we have lots of different ancient copies of the New Testament books and letters coming from different locations. When historians take these things into account, we have greater proof for the authenticity of the New Testament books than for any other ancient writing. More evidence is that the Resurrection was a consistent belief in the early Church. You can find it in all four Gospels, in the letters of Saint Paul, and in the speeches contained in the Acts of the Apostles. The most prevalent evidence is the change in Jesus’ followers. A group of people that were at once afraid of death and feared for themselves, was now willing to die, and this is because of Jesus’ death and resurrection that changed their feelings. The Keats prevalent evidence is the scientific evidence that tries to prove Jesus’ resurrection. We have very little evidence and therefore it is not prevalent.
19) What are the three titles of Christ taken from Scripture about His death, and why is each important?
The three titles of Christ taken from scripture about his death are the Suffering Servant, the Paschal Lamb, and the Ransom for Many. The title “the Suffering Servant” is important because it is important to remember that the first Christians, like Jesus himself, were Jews. There are explanations of Jesus’ death in sacred writings in Jewish scriptures. “He [the Suffering Servant] was wounded for our transgressions, crushed for our iniquities;upon him was the punishment that made us whole, and by his bruises we are healed” (Isaiah 53:5). In making this connection between ancient Jewish scripture and Jesus’ death the early Christians began to understand how Jesus’ freely given obedience to the Father’s will (or plan) was part of the explanation for how we have been freed from our sins. Second, the title “the Paschal Lamb” is important because of another story in the Old Testament that connects to Jesus’ suffering and death is the story of the Paschal, or Passover, Lamb. In the Gospel of John, Jesus is crucified on the Feast of the Passover, the same day that the Paschal lambs were being slaughtered in the Temple. Just as the blood of the Paschal lambs liberated the Israelites from death and slavery, so too does Jesus’ death and Resurrection save all humanity from death and from slavery to sin. Lastly, the title “the Ransom for Many” is important because In the Roman world, a ransom was the price paid to release a slave. In the Gospel of Mark it says “For the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life a ransom for many” (10:45). The idea of ransom helps us understand that Jesus paid to God the price of our freedom, so that we are no longer “owned” by sin and death.