The Scientific Method: The method has four steps- observation and description; hypothesize; predict; and test or experiment. It is used daily by people all over the world. Before the scientific method, hypotheses were often taken as fact and no one every really tested anything.
A portrait of Nicolaus Copernicus.
Nicolaus Copernicus was a polish astronomer and mathematician who was said to have lead off the scientific revolution with his publication of On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres in 1543. He was the person who purposed that the sun was the center of the solar system, rather than the Earth, which was how it was previously thought. Because he thought of this "outlandish" idea, both the Catholic Church and the Protestant Church condemned him because his ideas were in defiance to what was previously endorsed.
A picture of René Descartes.
René Descartes was a French philosopher and mathematician who "believed that both reason and observation were required to find truth about the universe." (Watts). He thought that people shouldn't just believe everything that they hear and instead should find out information by themselves.
A portrait of Tycho Brahe.
Tycho Brahe was a Danish astronomer who discovered new stars and proved that the heavens were unchanging, much to the displeasure of the churches. However, he didn't agree with Copernicus' idea that the Earth revolved around the sun.
Isaac Newton was at the peak of the scientific revolution and his laws still hold true today. His laws of motion are: An object in motion stays in motion unless stopped, the time rate of change of an object's momentum is equal to the force acting on the object, and for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. (Watts).
"Absolutism can be defined as a political system in which all authority rests with a single ruler, with no limits or checks to that power." (Watts).