Age of Inquiry By Kate Buchanan

The Renaissance

Bacchus by Michelangelo

Michelangelo: He was one of the most famous artists of the Renaissance. He made art for both the church, like in the piece he did for Pope Paul III, and for other people/organizations not related to the church, like the Bacchus he made for a banker. His art also outlined how people were going back to the ancient Greek and Roman realistic styles during the Renaissance. ("Michelangelo").

"Fresco of Francesco Petrarca (1304–1374), by Andrea di Bartolo di Bargilla, 1450, at the Uffizi Gallery in Rome. Petrarch was an Italian poet and scholar who ranks among the most celebrated creative figures in Italian literature." (Francesco)

Humanism in the Renaissance: "An appreciation of the value of human beings and one of the main tenets of the Renaissance." (Raichelle).

Portrait of 16th-century Dutch philosopher and author Desiderius Erasmus by German painter Hans Holbein.

"(Desiderius) Erasmus was one of the great humanist thinkers of the 16th century. He wrote on many different subjects, including theology and education, and his book The Praise of Folly was one of the best-selling works of his age." (Blackwell).

A portrait of Thomas More from the Library of Congress.

Thomas More was a humanist religious scholar, just like Desiderius Erasmus was. They both had what was considered ground breaking ideas at the time and lead the way for John Calvin and Martin Luther to start the break from the Catholic Church. ("Thomas More.")

At the end of the Renaissance, Johannes Gutenberg, a German artisan, invented the printing press. At the time this was revolutionary and helped the spread of information all over Europe. This invention also lead to the Protestant Reformation. (Raichelle).

The Protestant Reformation

A modern day cathedrial

The Catholic Church: The church had power over almost everything in Europe, the lands, the people, etc, in the early 16th century. The church controlled everything, however became corrupt and started selling pardons to people. (Raichelle).

Confessional door in a Catholic Church

Pardons from the Catholic Church: The priests of the Catholic Church were able to "forgive" sins for a price. Usually this price would be in the form of money and symbolized the corruption in the church.

An art piece of Martin Luther.

Martin Luther inadvertently started The Protestant Reformation when he protested against the corruption of the Catholic Church. Due to the printing press, his words went all over Europe and he quickly gained many followers. He was also the start of the Lutheran Church. (Raichelle).

A statue in honor of Martin Luther

Martin Luther's beliefs: he "believed that spiritual authority should come from the Bible, not from Catholic tradition." (Raichelle). He encouraged people to look for themselves and interpret the bible based on what they believe, not on what the church says the bible should say.

A portrait of John Calvin.

John Calvin: He was Martin Luther's successor and a law student. Calvin believed in predestination or the belief that all events have already been planned out by God. He was also the start of the Calvin Church.

The Counter-Reformation

A painting of the Council of Trent held in The Bridgeman Art Library in the UK

The start of the Catholic Church's Counter-Reformation started with the Council of Trent. Essentially, priests from all over came together to try and fix the corruption and other issues within the church, they also talked about how to deal with The Reformation and how to stay in power. ("Council of Trent").

A painting describing the thirty years' war

In 1618, war broke out between the Protestants and the Catholic Church. While it was still considered a religious war, it was still very political. The war changed everything in Europe dramatically.

A painting of the carnage of the thirty years' war.

The Protestant Union: One of the militant groups that arose in the war that was formed by the Calvinist princes in the Holy Roman Empire. (Watts).

The seal of the Catholic League.

Another one of the militant groups that arose from the thirty years' war. They were formed by Catholic rulers in Germany that wanted to destroy the spread of Protestantism in the Holy Roman Empire.

A painting of the signing of the Treaty of Westphalia.

The Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 ended the thirty years' war. It was a "peace Treaty between the Holy Roman Emperor and the King of France and their respective Allies." ("Treaty of Westphalia (1648)").

Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Method: The method has four steps- observation and description; hypothesize; predict; and test or experiment. It is used daily by people all over the world. Before the scientific method, hypotheses were often taken as fact and no one every really tested anything.

A portrait of Nicolaus Copernicus.

Nicolaus Copernicus was a polish astronomer and mathematician who was said to have lead off the scientific revolution with his publication of On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres in 1543. He was the person who purposed that the sun was the center of the solar system, rather than the Earth, which was how it was previously thought. Because he thought of this "outlandish" idea, both the Catholic Church and the Protestant Church condemned him because his ideas were in defiance to what was previously endorsed.

A picture of René Descartes.

René Descartes was a French philosopher and mathematician who "believed that both reason and observation were required to find truth about the universe." (Watts). He thought that people shouldn't just believe everything that they hear and instead should find out information by themselves.

A portrait of Tycho Brahe.

Tycho Brahe was a Danish astronomer who discovered new stars and proved that the heavens were unchanging, much to the displeasure of the churches. However, he didn't agree with Copernicus' idea that the Earth revolved around the sun.

Isaac Newton.

Isaac Newton was at the peak of the scientific revolution and his laws still hold true today. His laws of motion are: An object in motion stays in motion unless stopped, the time rate of change of an object's momentum is equal to the force acting on the object, and for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. (Watts).


"Absolutism can be defined as a political system in which all authority rests with a single ruler, with no limits or checks to that power." (Watts).

A Catholic Cathedral

The Protestant Reformation's Effect on Absolutism: The Protestant Reformation took away power from the Catholic Church. This power then was left in the hands of the kings and queens and without the restraint from the church, they were left to do whatever they wanted with what they ruled.

The heavens...

Divine Rights: A lot of absolute monarchs claimed that they had the right to be ruler because of God. They were able to rule this way without question.

The painting of a young Louis XIV.

Louis XIV was the absolute monarch of France. He was such a successful ruler, they even titled him the "Sun King." However, absolute monarchy didn't work out well for everyone...

A drawing of Charles I.

In 1629, Charles I ruled as the absolute monarch of England for 11 years after he dissolved Parliament. However, he needed money and couldn't raise that money without the approval of those who supported Parliament and making everyone angry. Eventually, the English Civil War broke out and those who supported Parliament won. They later hung Charles I. (Watts).

A picture of a westernized Russia

Absolutism in Russia: In Russia, absolutism didn't come from the idea of divine right, but because Russia was thought to have needed westernization. Both Peter the Great and Catherine II were responsible for westernizing and modernizing Russia and brought many technological advances with them.


A statue of Isaac Newton

The effects of the Scientific Revolution on Enlightenment: In Enlightenment, people applied reason to all aspects of society, instead of just in science and math. People applied the reasoning skills they learned to make better governments and better ways of life for everyone.

Created By
Kate Buchanan


Created with images by Me in ME - "Bargello" • stux - "letters wooden alphabet letters serifs" • kishjar? - "Gothic revival catholic church in Moscow" • strecosa - "church halifax canada" • Abode of Chaos - "Martin Luther, painted portrait DDC_8746" • falco - "martin luther protestant statue" • Abode of Chaos - "Jean Calvin, painted portrait DDC_8750" • Stifts- och landsbiblioteket i Skara - "R Descartes" • Trondheim byarkiv - "Tycho Brahe (1546 - 1601)" • immugmania - "Isaac Newton" • akk_rus - "St Antoine Catholic Church" • DavidSpinks - "Above the clouds" • Renaud Camus - "Le Jour ni l’Heure 2350 : Jacob Ferdinand Voet, c. 1639 / c. 1689:1700, Portrait d’un jeune seigneur, c. 1680 (?), musée d’Art & d’Histoire, palais archiépiscopal de Narbonne, Aude, dimanche 28 septembre 2014, 13:33:09" • Stifts- och landsbiblioteket i Skara - "Charles I" • tpsdave - "diveevo russia church" • cell105 - "Newton"

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