Protein synthesis is the process where biological cells generate new proteins. Ribosomes and Endoplasmic Reticulum. Some ribosomes are found in the cytoplasm. Animals and humans being. Because DNA is in the nucleus and ribosomes are in the cytoplasm, your cells need to rely on RNA, or ribonucleic acid, to transfer the information.
Transcription steps are Initiation, Elongation, Termination, and Processing. All transcription and replication of genetic material takes place within the nucleus, as does RNA processing. Ribosomes take place in transcription. Transcription takes place in the nucleus. The DNA can not leave because its to big and the mRNA can leave.
Translation steps 1. The ribosome comes to mRNA at a specific area. 2. The ribosome starts matching tRNA anti-codon sequences to the mRNA codon sequence. 3. Elongation. 4. The polypeptide forms into its native shape and starts acting as a functional protein in the cell. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is an organelles involved. Other organelles are ribosomes and amino acids. Translation occurs in the cytoplasm.
Mutation is a permanent, heritable change in the nucleotide sequence in a gene or a chromosome. What could cause them is environmental factors like radiation, chemicals your body is not used too, or you might be out in the sun to much. Inversion is the breaking of a chromosome, Translocation is chromosomal segment is moved from one position to another, Duplication is chromosomes replicated, Addition is a gene mutation where the nucleotide's causes a shift, Deletion is a chromosome is lost during DNA replication, Substitution exchanges one base for another. Frameshift mutations are due to mutations and Point mutations swap one nucleotide out for another. To me all mutations are bad because you have to keep dealing with them and some of the conditions are horrible.