A rock is a solid mineral material forming of the surface of the earth and other similar planets, exposed on the surface or underlying the soil or oceans. There are three different types of rocks: Sedimentary, Igneous, and Metamorphic.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rocks that are formed but the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water. Sedimentary rocks are found in rivers, deserts, oceans, and a variety of other locations. They usually begin there life underwater and rise to earth's surface when the water drys up. are three types of sedimentary rocks:
Clastic- denoting rocks composed of broken pieces of older rocks.
Bioclastic- skeletal fossil fragments of once living marine or land organisms that are found in sedimentary rocks.
Crystalline- having the structure and form of a crystal; composed of crystals.
This is a map of where Sedimentary Rocks are most commonly found.
Sedimentary Rocks are used to form metamorphic rocks. They sedimentary rocks can both become and create metamorphic and igneous rocks (shown in rock cycle diagram below) .
Metamorphic Rocks are a result of a transformation of a pre-existing rock. The original rock is subjected to very high heat and pressure, which cause obvious physical and/or chemical changes. The two types of metamorphic rocks are regional and contract. Metamorphic Rocks are found in lower continental crust.
Regional metamorphic rocks- are formed from sedimentary rocks. They are a variety of different textures because of there changes over a wide area of deep burial and heat.
Contract Metamorphic rocks- are rocks that change texture and minerals due to contact with magma.
This is a map of where Metamorphic Rocks are most commonly found.
Metamorphic Rocks come before and after both sedimentary rocks and igneous rocks. Metamorphic rocks can transform from sedimentary rock by heat and pressure. Metamorphic rocks can also be transformed from igneous rocks from heat and pressure (like shown in the rock cycle diagram below).
Igneous Rocks are on of the three main rock types and are formed by the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. There are two type of igneous rocks: intrusive and extrusive. Igneous rocks are found on the earth's surface.
Intrusive- these igneous rocks form when magma cools slowly below earth's surface
extrusive- form when magma reaches the Earth's surface and cools quickly
This is a map of where Igneous Rocks are most commonly found.
Igneous Rocks can both be created from magma/lava, and turn into it. As shown in the rock cycle diagram below, Igneous Rocks can form into sediment from weather and erosion as well. Igneous rocks can also change into Metamorphic rocks when heat and pressure is applied.
Tools used to identify Rocks:
Glass- this object is used to test the hardness of an object. To test the hardness of an object, you take the mineral and scratch it along the glass.If it leaves a mark, it is harder than glass, if it does not, it is softer than glass.
Tile- a tile is used to identify the color of a mineral.You rub the mineral along the tile to see what color streak the mineral leaves behind
Fracture test- the way a mineral breaks
Luster- the way the light reflects off the mineral
Magnifying glass- used to observe minerals closely and clearly