Presidents Nathan bernardo

George Washington

The 1st President

1) George Washington was a great leader, speaker, very intelligent, loyal, and patriotic.

2) George Washington's secretary of war was Henry Knox, the secretary of state was Thomas Jefferson, Edmund Randolph was the attorney general, and Alexander Hamilton was the Secretary of the treasury. The Two Party System started during the 1790's.

3) The Judiciary Act of 1789 created three levels of federal courts and defined their powers and relationship to the state courts.

4) The French Revolution was a rebellion of French people against their king in 1789.

5) In the Whiskey Rebellion, farmers lashed out against the tax on whiskey.

6) The Neutrality Proclamation stated that the United States would not take sides with any European countries that were at war.

7) Jay's Treaty settled the disputes that had arisen between the United States and Great Britain in the early 1790's. Pinckney's Treaty settled the border and trade disputes with Spain.

8) Written by Washington, the Farewell Address spoke about what he believed were the greatest dangers to the American republic.

9) In his farewell speech, he warned against forming permanent ties with other countries because choosing sides could draw the United States into war, too much public debt, the growing political conflicts within the nation, disagreements between political groups weakened government, as the key to national success was political unity, and that the nation to work out its differences and protect its independence.

John Adams

The 2nd President

1) The Democratic-Republican Party's members, called Republicans, wanted to limit the federal government's power.

2) In 1798 the Federalist-controlled Congress passed four laws know together as the Alien and Sedition Acts, which were said to protect the United States, but the Federalists intended them to crush opposition to war.

3) During the election of 1800, there were problems with the voting systems, which made the government create the 12th amendment which created a separate ballot for president and vice president.

4) In the XYZ affair, the French demanded for a bribe came to be called.

5) The Marbury vs Madison issue was a case that helped establish the Supreme Court's power to check the power of the other branches of government.

Thomas Jefferson

The 3rd President

1) Thomas Jefferson's goal during his presidency was to limit the powers of the government, the protection of civil liberties, choosing his own cabinet members, lower military spending, reduce the size of the army, get the government to repay the national debt, find a way to get rid of domestic taxes.

2) The election of 1800 affected Jefferson since there would be a separate ballot for the vice president.

3) During the Marbury vs Madison issue, Jefferson was affected with not being able to get Justice Samuel Chase impeached.

4) The Lewis And Clark expedition on May 1804, began its long journey to explore the Louisiana Purchase, an agreement on October 20, 1803 which would roughly double the size of the United States, for a price of $15 million to the French treasury.

5) The Embargo act was a law made in late 1807, to essentially ban trade with all foreign countries. In 1809, Congress tried to bring back trades with the Non-Intercourse Act, which banned trade with only Britain, France, and their colonies.

The LousiAna Purchase


1) The Mississippi River was important for the farmers and people of New Orleans, since its docks were filled with farmer's products and valuable furs from Native Americans.

2) Napoleon's plan for Louisiana was to rebuild France's empire in North America. The American farmers were scared of Napoleon rebuilding in North America, since they thought that Napoleon would close down the Mississippi River.

3) On October 20, 1803, the Senate approved the Louisiana Purchase agreement, which roughly doubled the size of the United States. Napoleon agreed to the Louisiana Purchase, since their country needed money and funds to fight their war against Britain, and because they believed that Britain would soon have a rival in the United States.

4) Two pros of the Louisiana Purchase includes doubling the size of the United States, and keeping the Mississippi River open. Two cons included expanding the power of the federal government, and spending big amounts of public money.

James Madison

The 4th President

1) Republican James Madison ​was elected ​​president in 1808 and served a second term during 1812.

2) The War of 1812 was fought between America and Great Britain. On July, 1812, the War of 1812 begins. On September of 1813, Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry sailed out to ​meet the British, beginning ​the Battle of Lake Erie​. During August and December of 1814, The Treaty of Fort Jackson, was signed, which ended the Creek War and forced the Creek to give up millions ​of acres of their land. ​​During January, 1815, The Battle of New Orleans begun. ​On December 24, 1814, ​The Treaty of Ghent, which ​​had been signed in Belgium, ended the War of 1812. The war had many consequences, but it has helped the Americans mentally, economically, and financially.

3) The Battle of 1812 was fought on sea and land.

4) Marbury versus Madison was a case that helped establish the Supreme Court’s power to check the power of the other branches of government.

James Monroe

The 5th President

1) James Monroe was elected in 1816. From 1815 to 1825 the United States enjoyed the Era of Good Feelings, ​a time of peace, ​​pride, and progress. Nationalism ​​is feelings of ​pride in and loyalty to a nation. Henry Clay's plan was to build the economy, he pushed for a national bank that would ​provide a single currency, making interstate trade easier.

2)In 1819 the two countries signed the Adams-Onís Treaty,​​ which settled all border disputes between Spain and the United States. Under this ​treaty, Spain gave East Florida to the United ​States. In return, the United States gave up ​its claims to what is now Texas. U.S. leaders ​also agreed to pay up to $5 million of U.S. ​citizens’ claims against Spain.​​

3) The ​Monroe Doctrine ​was an exclusive statement ​of American policy warning European ​powers not to interfere with the Americas.​​

4) Henry Clay convinced Congress to agree ​to the Missouri Compromise​, which settled​ the conflict that had arisen from Missouri’s application for statehood.

5) In 1825 New York opened the erie Canal, which connected ​Buffalo on Lake erie to Albany on the Hudson River. With ​the new canal, boats and barges could travel from New York ​harbor in the east to the Great Lakes region in the west. ​

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