Independent Assorment Payton Sloop


the failure of one or more pairs of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate normally during nuclear division

Recessive Genes

A gene that is phenotypically expressed in the homozygous state but has its expression masked in the presence of a dominant gene.

Dominant Genes

A gene that is expressed phenotypically in heterozygous or homozygous individuals.

Somatic Cell

one of the cells that take part in the formation of the body, becoming differentiated into the various tissues, organs, etc.

Germ Cell

the sexual reproductive cell at any stage from the primordial cell to the mature gamete.


the chromosomes of a cell, usually displayed as a systematized arrangement of chromosome pairs in descending order of size.

The genotype is like the instructions for the traits & the phenotype is the actual physical trait

Klinefelter's Syndrome

When the sex chromosomes are xxy, females have a y chromosome giving them extra testosterone and making them more manly.

Down Syndrome

A mutation if the 21st chromosome resulting in an extra chromosome


It is a mutation of the X chromosome

Turner's disease

This occurs when one only has an x chromosome

All of these are recessive traits that occur in the germ cells

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