The Rise of Mass Democracy cHAPTER 13

Key Terms:

1. corrupt bargain: alleged deal between presidential candidates John Q. Adams and Henry Clay to throw the election, to be decided by the house of representatives, in Adam's favor

2. spoils system: the practice of a successful political party giving public office to its supporters

3. Trail of Tears: forced march of fifteen hundred cherokee indians from their Georgia and Alabama homes to Indian territory; some four thousand Cherokee died in the journey

4. Bank War: the political struggle that developed over the issue of rechartering the Second Bank of the United States during the Andrew Jackson administration

5. pet banks: popular term for pro-Jackson state banks that received the bulk of federal deposits when Andrew Jackson moved to dismantle the bank of the united states in 1833

6. Alamo: a mission in San Antonio, Texas that was used as a fort during the Texas revolution

7. Goliad: city in Texas where defeated American volunteers threw down their arms during the Lone Star Rebellion.

8. Force Bill: passed by congress alongside the compromise tariff; it authorized the president to use the military to collect federal tariff duties

9. Anti-Masonic party: first founded in New York, it gained considerable influence in New England and the mid Atlantic during the 1832 election, campaigning against the politically influential masonic order, a secret society. anti-masons opposed Andrew Jackson, a mason, and drew much of their support from evangelical protestants

10. Indian Removal Act: provided for the general resettlement of Native Americans from east of the Mississippi River to lands west

Section Summaries

Section 1: The “Corrupt Bargain” of 1824

  • James Monroe finished his final presidential term.
  • Four new candidates were up for president: John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, William H. Crawford, and Andrew Jackson.
  • It was a battle of the Republicans.
  • Jackson won the popular vote but did not have enough electoral votes to win automatically.
  • The House of Representatives chose John Quincy Adams as the next president in 1825.
  • Many Jacksonians began a protest but did not change the outcome of the election.

Section 2: A Yankee Misfit in the White House

  • Adams was not well liked and gained respect by demanding it from those who worked for him.
  • There were many mixed emotions about whether he was a good president or not.
  • Many people did not like the corrupt bargains that he was letting take place, where other wished that he would cause a few more to take place.
  • Any good that Adams tried to make happen was frowned upon by the public.

Section 3: Going “Whole Hog” for Jackson in 1828

  • Andrew Jackson began his presidential campaign the day that he lost to Adams, and had his campaign roaring for the next four years.
  • Some of the major rally cries for Jackson were: “Bargain and Corruption,” “Huzza for Jackson,” and “All Hail Old Hickory.”
  • Jacksonian praised Jackson as a hero, whereas they denounced Adams and made him look like a bad guy.
  • When the election of 1828 came around the parties were getting out of hand going into the candidates families’ personal lives.
  • Jackson won the election of 1828.

Section 4: "Old Hickory" as President

  • In Jackson’s past, he struggled from many illnesses and diseases and he loved to fight instead of learn.
  • He soon learned to turn that love of fighting into love of writing about it.
  • He was the second president without a college education.
  • Jacksonian became more popular than Jeffersonian.

Section 5: The Spoils System

  • Jackson defended the spoils system for his image.
  • “Every man is as good as his neighbor, perhaps equally better.”
  • Getting rid of Washington’s perfectly good system began some scandals.
  • Using the spoils system cemented the loyalty of claims over geographical and economic classes.

Section 6: The Tricky "Tariff of Abominations"

  • Tariff issues had been some of Adam’s biggest struggles, and Jackson now understood the pressure.
  • An insane tariff was passed in 1828 labelling Jackson as a political “Hot Potato.”
  • Many places were having a rough time economically, therefore they used the tariff as there scapegoat.
  • Many states began to protest against the tariffs. John C. Calhoun even wrote a pamphlet over it called The South Carolina Explosion

Section 7: "Nullies" in South Carolina

  • In Jackson's first term the "nullies" tried to muster the necessary two-thirds vote for nullification in the South Carolina legislature.
  • Nullifies and Unionists clashed head-on in the state election of 1832.
  • The compromise Tariff of 1833 finally went through Congress.
  • Neither Jackson not the "nullies" won a clear-cut victory in 1833.

Section 8: The Trail of Tears

  • Jackson's Democrats were committed to western expansion, but this meant there would probably be confrontation with the current inhabitants of the land.
  • $20,000 was appropriated for the promotion of literacy and agricultural and vocational instruction among the Indians.
  • Jackson's policy led to the forced uprooting of more than 100,000 Indians.
  • The Black Hawk War occur ed in 1832.

Section 9: The Bank of War

  • Jackson did not trust many banks, which caused many of his "followers" to not trust them as well.
  • He did not like it because the Bank of the United States acted as another branch of government.
  • The Bank War began because Daniel Webster and Henry Clay tried to pass a bill to renew the Bank of the United States charter.
  • Henry Clay used Jackson's hate of banks for his presidential race against him in the next election.

Section 10: "Old Hickory" Wallops Clay in 1832

  • "Jackson Forever: Go the Whole Hog."
  • A third party entered the presidential race for the first time: the Anti-Masonic party.
  • The Anti-Masonic party was also anti-Jackson due to his political beliefs, even though Jackson is a born and raised Mason.
  • Jackson won with an electoral vote of 219 to 49

Section 11: Burying Biddle's Bank

  • The Bank of the United States was due to expire in 1836.
  • In 1833 Jackson decided to bury the bank for good by removing federal deposits from its vaults, so that Biddle wouldn't manipulate it.
  • The death of the Bank of the United States left a financial vacuum in the American economy.
  • "Wildcat currency became so unreliable that Jackson issued a Specie Circular.

Section 12: The Birth of the Whigs

  • The Whig party contained many diverse elements.
  • The hatred of Jackson and his "executive usurpation" was its only apparent cement in its formative days.
  • Whigs thought of themselves as conservatives, yet they were progressive in their support of active government programs and reforms.
  • The Whigs claimed to be the defenders of the common man and declared the Democrats the party of cronyism and corruption.

Section 13: The Election of 1836

  • Martin Van Buren was chosen by Jackson for "appointment" as his successor in 1836.
  • Jackson rigged the nomination convention and rammed his favorite down the throats of the delegates.
  • The Whigs could not nominate a single presidential candidate.
  • Van Buren won the election by popular vote, 765,483-739,795.

Section 14: Big Woes for the "Little Magician"

  • Martin Van Buren was the first president to be born under the American flag.
  • He had resentment towards many Democrats, "bastard politicians".
  • Van Buren's four years had an excessive amount of toil and trouble.
  • Jackson bequeathed to Van Buren the makings of the searing depression.

Section 15: Depression Doldrums and the Independent Treasury

  • The panic of the 1837 was a symptom of the financial sickness of the times.
  • Failures of wheat crops, ravaged by the Hessian fly, made the distress even worse.
  • American banks collapsed by the hundreds, including some "pet banks."
  • Van Buren tried to apply vintage Jacksonian medicine to the economy through his controversial "Divorce Bill."

Section 16: Gone to Texas

  • Americans continued to covet the vast expanse of Texas, which the United States had abandoned to Spain when acquiring Florida in 1819.
  • Hardy Texas pioneers remained Americans at heart, resenting the trammels imposed by a "foreign" government.
  • Sam Houston was a distinguished latecomer, leader, and ex-governor of Tennessee.
  • In 1835, Santa Anna wiped out all local rights and started the raise an army to suppress the upstart of Texans.

Section 17: The Lone Star Rebellion

  • In 1836 the Texans declared their independence and named Sam Houston commander in chief.
  • Sam Houston wiped out nearly two hundred pugnacious Texans at the Alamo.
  • These events put the U.S. government in a difficult situation.
  • Many Texans remained slaveholders.

Section 18: Log Cabins and Hard Cider of 1840

  • Martin Van Buren was renominated by the Democrats in 1840.
  • The Whigs decided to nominate William Henry Harrison.
  • Harrison was nearly sixty-eight when the campaign ended.
  • Harrison won with a close margin of 1,274,624-1,127,781.

Section 19: Politics for the People

  • The election of 1840 demonstrated two major changes in American politics since the Era of Good Feelings.
  • Most high political offices continued t be filled by "leading citizens."
  • The common man was at last moving to the center of the national political stage.
  • Instead of the old divine rights of kings, America was now bowing to the divine right of the people.

Section 20: The Two-Party System

  • The second dramatic change resulting from the 1840 election was the formation of a two-party system.
  • Democrats clung to states' rights and federal restraint in social and economic affairs as their basic doctrines.
  • The two parties were set apart by their real differences of philosophy and policy.
  • When the two-party system began to creak in the 1850's, the Union was mortally imperiled.

Credits:

Created with images by mrsdkrebs - "American Flag"

Made with Adobe Slate

Make your words and images move.

Get Slate

Report Abuse

If you feel that this video content violates the Adobe Terms of Use, you may report this content by filling out this quick form.

To report a Copyright Violation, please follow Section 17 in the Terms of Use.