Environmental Chemistry By:Walter Diaz,Armando Corral,and David Flores



Temperature vs Heat: Temperature is energy of a substance,and Heat is the transfer of energy to one substance to another or particle.

Laws of Thermo : First law: Energy and Mass is not created or destroyed.Second Law: Entropy is Always increasing entropy is Chaos/disorder. Third law: There is no molecular movement at absolute zero.Zero law: energy moves from high to low

Calories and specific heat: The specific heat of water is 1 calorie/gram °C = 4.186 joule/gram °C which is higher than any other common substance. As a result, water plays a very important role in temperature regulation.



Up-cycling vs down cycling:Up-cycling reuses materials to make a product of a higher quality or value than it was in the first place but it's very expensive to do. Down-cycling; It reuses materials but it turns into something of lesser quality than it was originally was and it is very cheap to do.

Types of plastics and issues: This are all the types of plastics Polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE),High-Density polyethylene (HDPE), Polyvinyl chloride (PVC),Low-density polyethylene (LDPE), Polypropylene (PP), and Polystyrene (PS). Issues with plastics is that it takes 1 thousand years to brake down.So many fish are getting posing because they are eating it.

Recycling metals and paper: Aluminum is closed loop recycling. You can recycle it as many times as you want but never down cycled.Paper must be down cycled, every time paper is recycled the fiber gets smaller.



Soil Profiles: There are five soil horizons: O, A, E, B, and C. (R is used to denote bedrock.)The O horizon is between 0-2 ft,the deft of it depend in the amount of vegetation. The A horizon is the top soil and it also is were most life is fond.The E horizon not all soils have the E horizon ( leaching layer) It is going to be light in color and have no nutrients. The B horizon is sub soil,this is were there is lots of minerals.The C horizon is broken up bedrock,it has large rocks and no organic minerals.The R horizon is bedrock this is were we drill through to get water.

Sand,Silt and Clay (soil texture):The Texture of Sand is large partials.The texture of Silt is coats the name able to brush off. The texture of Clay cannot be seen, atomic structure not a particle sticks to your hand.

Issues with soil and soil properties: Soil health is the foundation of productive farming practices. Fertile soil provides essential nutrients to plants. Important physical characteristics of soil-like structures and aggregation allow water and air to infiltrate, roots to explore, and biota to thrive. Diverse and active biological communities help soil resist physical degradation and cycle nutrients at rates to meet plant needs.

Plant Nutrients

Plant Nutrients

Micro and Macro: Micro nutrients: A substance required in trace amounts for the normal growth and development of living organism. Macro nutrients: A substance required relatively large amounts by living organism, like a chemical element like potassium,magnesium,calcium is required in large amounts for plants growth and development.

Fertilizers: Organic Fertilizer:Manure and organic fertilizer are complete fertilizer. There rich in organic material and helps soil hold onto water. They are a waste product. Inorganic: Are manufactured or mined. You can control what macro nutrient are in it. Most are straight.

Deficiencies and Toxicities: The Toxicities in the fertilizer is that some run off into a water source and will contaminate it.That water then will heart the wild life and even us.



Properties of water: The properties of water are, Its attraction to polar molecules, High-specific heat, High heat of vaporization, The lower density of ice, and High polarity.

Types of water pollution: Types of water pollution. There are many types of water pollution because water comes from many sources. Some of this pollution are Surface water pollution, Oxygen Depleting, Chemical Water Pollution,and Oil Spillage.

Water Treatment(removing pollution): The goal of water treatment, usually from surface sources such as lakes, reservoirs, or rivers, is to remove contaminants and organisms through a combination of biological, chemical, and physical processes to make it safe for drinking.

Water Issues: The availability of water is a concern for some countries. But the scarcity at the heart of the global water crisis is rooted in power, poverty and inequality, not in physical availability.

Atoms and ions

Atoms and Ions

Atomic Theory: The theory that all matter is made up of atoms. According to the modern version, the atoms of each element are effectively identical, but differ from those of other elements, and unite to form compounds in fixed proportions.

Ions: an atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons

Ionic Compounds: a metal and nonmetal combined (the charges cancel each other out and equal zero.


Created with images by 185053 - "geirangerfjord norway waterfall" • Couleur - "light bulb pear light" • Jamiesrabbits - "God Recycles" • _gee_ - "slide rock 02" • Alexas_Fotos - "lavender bottle plant" • bella67 - "drip drop of water wave" • NASA Goddard Photo and Video - "VISIONS: Seeing the Aurora in a New Light"

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