5 Fallacies Samantha MEREDITH, Faith new, rebecca lyons

Hasty Generation-A generation based on insufficient or unrepresented evidence. Example 1: Deaths from overdoses in Metropolis have doubled over the last three years. Therefore, more Americans than ever are dying from drug abuse. Example 2: Penguins are black and white. Some old tv shows are black and white. Therefore, some penguins are old tv shows.

Non Sequitur-A conclusion that does not follow logically from preceding statements or that is based on irrelevant data. Example 1: Mary loves children, so she will make an excellent school teacher. Example 2: People died of cancer before cigarettes were invented, so smoking doesn't cause cancer.

Bandwagon Appeal- A claim and idea should be accepted because a large number of people favor it or believe it to be true. Example 1: You need to see the new movie, everybody else has watched it. Example 2: See why so many women have switched (shampoo advertisement)

Red Herring-An argument that focuses on an irrelevant issue to detract attention from the real issue. Example 1: We can't worry about the environment, we're in the middle of a war. Example 2: In order to really look at the problem of global warming, we must first consider how the homeless suffer when it is cold.

Force and Fear-The ad baculum fallacy is committed whenever the proponent of an argument attempts to persuade the audience to accept the conclusion...by predicting (or causing) unpleasant consequences. Example 1: Study your notes or you will fail the test. Example 2: Believe me or else you'll fail this course!

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