Imperialism is when a stronger country takes over a weaker country to change its economic, political, and cultural life. It was a common practice for European countries to search for new sources of raw materials and manufacture it into products to sell. It was also a way for countries to expand their land or territory. In the 16th century to the start of the 19th century, Old Imperialism was when European nations sought trade routes, explored the New World, and established settlements. For New Imperialism, European countries expanded for more power, control, and nationalism due to the Industrial Revolution.
Ex. 1: In 1673, India was taken over by the British for defeating the French in the Seven Years' War. India was controlled by creating the British East India Company. It was the most dominant trader at the time which made it profitable for Great Britain. The British were able to make new social changes, support education, and improve technology. However, the British ignored the traditions and culture of India. This led to a rebellion with a group of Indian soldiers called the Sepoys.
Ex. 2: In 1898, the U.S. gained control over Hawaii. It all started with the sugar industry and trade system. A group called the Hawaiian League forced the King to sign the Bayonet Constitution through threats of violence. After facing death, his sister Liliuokalani became queen. Queen Liliuokalani created a new Constitution that involved the powers of the Monarchy. A group of sugar planters and white businessman were angered and decided to overthrow the government. President Cleveland tried to oppose and bring back the queen, but the results ended up being the same.
Ex. 3: France invaded Algeria in North Africa in 1830. It was easy for the French to take over because of its location and there were many useful natural resources. Algerians followed the Islamic religion, but due to French imperialism, Christianity became their second religion. Many knew how to speak French as their second language. The French helped the country by creating similar industries, shops, banks, and services. At the same time, it was hard to have rights because they would have to assimilate and dishonor the family. There was rebellion, but France used terror tactics to prevent it.
Ex. 4: Japan was able to begin imperialism in Korea in 1910. At first, there was a treaty signed between two countries in 1905. King Sukjong was forced to abdicate in 1907, but his son took over throne. After three years of being pressured to abdicate and fear of the Japanese, Japan conquered Korea. Japan built new roads, railroads, and schools for the country, but most Koreans were banned to speak their language and forced to change their names. The Japanese wanted Koreans to adapt to their society.