The History and Future Development of Hezbollah in the Middle East. By Kyle Ferguson & Graham

The following presentation will examine the details and specifics regarding the founding, development, and future of an Islamist Movement specifically known as Hezbollah. The presentation will cover politics, economics, and social relations of the group.

Map of Lebanon that shows areas controlled by Hezbollah (Shi'a Majority) and areas controlled by the Lebanese Government.

History of Hezbollah:

  • Hezbollah is formally known as the "Party of God". It is a radical organization under Muslim Shi'a faith located in Lebanon.
  • Due to Hezbollah's threats towards stability in the Middle East, the United States, in 1997, place them on the Foreign Terrorist Organization (FTO) list.
  • Hezbollah claims to not officially recognize the State of Israel as a legitimate power. Therefore, tensions are always teetering back and forth between the two powers.
  • Two names that Hezbollah goes by include: "Organization of the Oppressed on Earth" and the "Revolutionary Justice Organization".
  • A Joint Task Force between Israeli and United Nations forces estimate that since 2015, Hezbollah has acquired over 150,000 military grade weapons.
Hassan Nasrallah - The current Secretary General of Hezbollah. (1992-Present)

Hezbollah's Mission:

  • The main goal of Hezbollah remains to increase the establishment of Islamic rule across the Arab world. They also have an increased emphasis on the "liberation" of Jerusalem and the end of entire State of Israel.
  • The organization seeks to create a completely fundamentalist Islamic Republic, while also removing every non-islamic influence.
  • Hezbollah has aided and cooperated with: Hamas, Al-Qaeda, Russia, to plan and execute many operations that have murdered many innocent people.

Where does Hezbollah fall on the political spectrum?

  • Hezbollah runs a large scale welfare system sepeartly from their military.
  • Hezbollah views an ideal Islamic Republic to be formed after Iran's structure of government.
  • Hezbollah actively and openly supports the complete destruction of the State of Israel.
  • A main goal is to introduce an Islamic government into Lebanon through "peaceful" and "democratic means".
  • Sheikh Muhammed Hussein is known as the spiritual father of Hezbollah, he acts as the chief Mujtahid or chief arbiter of the Islamic law.
Hezbollah's military capability and its very real threat towards the destruction of the State of Israel.

What role does Hezbollah play in national politics?

  • Hezbollah is one of two major political parties that represents the Shi'a Muslim community.
  • Actively plays a significant role in Lebanese politics as it holds two out of the three Lebanese parliament seats.
  • In southern Lebanon, Hezbollah, has won the majority of seats in parliament.
  • Counter-terrorism agencies globally have accused Iran since 2002, of being directly involved with Hezbollah in the attempt to fire missiles into civilian areas of Israel.

How is Hezbollah financially supported?

  • Hezbollah is mainly supported financially by Iran. Over the past thirty years, Iran has supplied the organization with over $300 million dollars, hours of military training, as well as military grade weapons. Iran also helps Hezbollah with political, diplomatic, and medical aid.
  • Intelligence agencies in the United States have suspected Russia of also providing financial and military aid to Hezbollah. It took over twelve years for Russia to confirm that Hezbollah is a terrorist organization.
  • Hezbollah has claimed to have "many" small operations in the domestic United States. In 2003, the DEA and Homeland Security found the existence of drug-trafficking rings in Chicago, Detroit, and Charolette. It is estimated the Hezbollah has received over $10 million dollars from these funds.
Hezbollah soldiers stand at ready for parade day.

Who are the allies and enemies of Hezbollah?

  • In 1992, three members: Iran, Hezbollah, and Hamas signed an official cooperation agreement to destroy Israel.
  • Hezbollah has developed a relationship with Al-Qaida, the cooperated in the bombing of United States embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.
  • Syria is one of Hezbollah's largest allies and backs the organization morally as well as with weapons. To make the relationship mutualistic, Hezbollah protects Syria's military, social, and political interests in Lebanon.
  • List of Allies: Iran, Syria, Russia, Venezuela, Bosnia, Slovakia
  • List of Enemies: Everyone else / Lebanon, Iraq, and Algeria are on the fence.

Where does the role of "pluralism" fall within the organization?

  • The role of pluralism in Hezbollah can be seen as incredibly insignificant in their mission and focus. Hezbollah has a very solitary path to their goal. They brand themselves as a peaceful transition into Muslim law and rule, however, their full support towards the destruction of the State of Israel is anything but peaceful. They are perhaps pluralistic in the sense that their elections in Lebanon are what seem democratic. In order to hold over 66% of the Lebanese politics they have needed to acquire a large following with pluralistic goals through a democratic and peaceful means.
Hezbollah has international support in many counties across the world.

Bibliography:

  • "Hezbollah." Anti-Defamation League. Accessed April 02, 2017. https://www.adl.org/education/resources/profiles/hezbollah."
  • Hezbollah & Hamas - Political Cartoon." Digital image. Accessed April 2, 2017. http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger2/2235/3854/1600/cartoon.gif."
  • Hezbollah Declassified Map." Digital image. Accessed April 2, 2017. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/images/terror/hezlebmap.jpg.
  • "Hezbollah supported worldwide." Digital image. Accessed April 2, 2017. https://cfoi.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/hezbollah-flag.png.
  • "Hezbollah: History & Overview." History & Overview of Hezbollah. Accessed April 02, 2017. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/history-and-overview-of-hezbollah#leadership.Hu, Zoe.
  • "The history of Hezbollah, from Israel to Syria." Lebanon News | Al Jazeera. December 20, 2016. Accessed April 02, 2017. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/10/history-hezbollah-israel-syria-161031053924273.html.Hubbard, Isabel Kershner and Ben.
  • "Hezbollah Is Using U.S.-Made Military Vehicles in Syria, Israel Says." The New York Times. December 21, 2016. Accessed April 02, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/21/world/middleeast/hezbollah-us-made-apc-syria-lebanon.html.
  • "Missile Capabilities of Hezbollah." Digital image. Accessed April 2, 2017. http://www.aipac.org/-/media/website/images/israel-in-maps/maps_hezbollahrocketarsenal_sm.jpg.
  • "Quote from Hassan Rouhani - President of Iran." Digital image. Accessed April 2, 2017. http://i.quoteaddicts.com/media/q3/233803.png."Secretary General of Hezbollah - Hassan Nasrallah.
  • " Digital image. Accessed April 2, 2017. https://i0.wp.com/sheldonkirshner.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Hassan-Nasrallah1.jpg.
  • "Soldiers stand in line awaiting the Hezbollah Parade." Digital image. Accessed April 2, 2017. http://guardianlv.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/o-HEZBOLLAH-DENIES-ISRAEL-DRONE-facebook-e1369074513864.jpg.

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