Manifest Destiny Pages 345-367

Rivalry in the Northwest

  1. The Oregon Country was a huge area located north of California, between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. It included all of what are now Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, plus parts of Montana and Wyoming.
  2. Great Britain had explored the Columbia River. Spain controlled California, and Russia had settlements south from Alaska into Oregon.

Adams-Onis Treaty

  1. Many Americans wanted control of Oregon in order to gain access to the Pacific Ocean. In 1819 Secretary of State John Quincy Adams got Spain to approve the Adams-Onis Treaty.
  2. In 1824 also gave up its claim to the land south of Alaska. Dealing with Great Britain was more complicated. In 1818 Adams worked out an agreement with Britain for Joint occupation.

Mountain Men in Oregon

  1. Fur traders had been the first Americans to take up the challenge of living in the Oregon Country.
  2. They came to trap beaver, whose skins were in great demand in Europe.
  3. In 1808 Astor organized the American Fur Company. The country's leading fur company, it traded on the East Coast, in the Pacific Northwest, and in China.

" what did america gain from the Adams Onis Treaty"

  1. "Answer" The Adams–Onis Treaty of 1819 Florida Purchase Treaty, or the Florida Treaty, was a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819 that ceded Florida to the U.S. and defined the boundary between the U.S. and New Spain.

Oregon and Manifest Destiny - Marcus and NarcissacWhitman

  1. In the 1830s, Americans began traveling to the Oregon Country to settle. Economic troubles in the East and reports of Oregon's fertile land drew many people.
  2. Among the first settlers were Dr. Marcus Whitman and his wife, Narcissa. They were missionaries who went to Oregon in 1836 and built a mission among the Cayuse people near the present site of Walla Walla, Washington. They wanted to provide medical care and convert the Cayuse to Christianity.

Along the Oregon Trail

  1. The Whitman massacre was a shocking event, but it did little to stop the flood of pioneers on their way to Oregon. Drawn by reports of fertile Oregon land, and driven by economic hard times in the East, many Americans took to the trail.
  2. In 1843 about a thousand emigrants made the journey. Tens of thousands more would follow in the years ahead. Before the difficult 2,000-mile (3,219 km) journey, these pioneers packed all their belongings.

America Seeks its Manifest Destiny

  1. Since colonial times, many Americans had believed their nation's mission should be to serve as a model of freedom and democracy. In the 1800s that vision changed.
  2. Many believed that the nation's mission was to spread freedom by settling the entire continent. In 1819 John Quincy Adams expressed what many Americans were thinking when he said expansion to the pacific was as certain as the Mississippi River flowing to the sea.

Fifty-Four Forty of Fight

  1. Many Americans wanted the United States to take over all of Oregon. In the 1844 presidential election, James K. Polk the Democratic nominee, supported this desire.
  2. Polk's Whig opponent, Henry Clay, did not take a strong position on the Oregon issue. Polk won the election because Whig support was not united behind Clay.

"How did the polk's views differ from clay's in the 1844 election"

  1. "Answer" Since its Declaration of Independence in 1836 presidents had been uneasy about annexing Texas due to Mexico still owning it.

"How did Florida become a state?"

  1. "Answer" Congress agreed that Florida should come into the Union as one State and the bill was signed by President Tyler March 3, 1845.

Florida

  1. When Spain transferred Florida to the United States on July 17, 1821, Florida became an American territory. Under the terms of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, Florida had an appointed territorial governor, a territorial legislature, and a nonvoting delegate to the United States congress.
  2. Tallahassee became the territorial capital in 1824. The capital was located about midway between St. Augustine and Pensacola, Florida's major cities at the time.
  3. Not counting Native Americans, fewer than 8,000 people lived in the territory, including enslaved people.

The Territory Grows

  1. In 1837 the census for the territory of Florida reported that 48,000 people lived there. Enslaved people made up about one-half of Florida's population.
  2. Officials organized a vote to determine if Floridians wanted to form a state. Only white men over 21 years of age voted in this election.

Statehood for Florida

  1. Iowa finally emerged as a free state candidate. With the question of slavery removed, President John Tyler signed the Florida statehood bill.
  2. Florida became the twenty-seventh state in the United States on March 3, 1845. The next year, Iowa became a free state. Thus, the balance between the slave and free states in the nation remained the same in congress.

"what caused the population of Florida to grow?"

  1. "Answer" Migrations from the other states was a big one.

Texas

  1. In 1821 Mexico won independence from Spain. Mexico controlled the land that is now Texas. At the time, the non-Native American population of Texas was about 3,000.
  2. Most of these people were Tejanos or Mexicans who claimed Texas as their home. Wishing to increase Settlement, Mexico offered vast tracts of land to people who would agree to bring families to settle there as citizens of Mexico.
  3. At first Mexico encouraged Americans to settle in Texas. Before long, Americas greatly outnumbered Tejanos.

The Alamo

  1. The Texans had only about 180 soldiers to take on Santa Anna's army of several thousands. The Texans did have brave leaders, however, including folk hero Davy Crockett, commander William B. Travis, and a tough Texan named Jim Bowie.
  2. For 13 long days, through several attacks, the defenders of the Alamo kept Santa Anna's army at bay with rifle fire. On March 6, 1836, Mexican cannon fire smashed the Alamo's walls.
  3. The Alamo defenders had been defeated, but they had bought the Texans time to gather troops and supplies. They has also provided the Texans with a rallying cry: "Remember the Alamo!"

Texas Declares Its Independence

  1. During the siege at the Alamo, Texan leaders met at the town of Washington-on-the-Brazos. Among them were a number of Tejanos, who were also unhappy with Mexican rule.
  2. On March 2, 1836 four days before the fall of the Alamo they declared independence from Mexico. They then established the republic of Texas.

The Lone Star Republic

  1. In September 1836, Texans elected Sam Huston as their president. Mirabeau Lamar, who had fought at the Battle of San Jacinto, served as vice president.
  2. Andrew Jackson, however, refused their request. The addition of another slave state would upset the balance of slave and free states in congress. For the moment, Texas would remain an independent country.

Texas Becomes a State

  1. Many Texans wanted to join the United States. Southerners favored Texas annexation, but Northerners opposed admitting another slave state to the Union.
  2. President Martin Van Buren did not want to inflame the slavery issue or risk war with Mexico. He put of the question of annexing Texas.

"why did it take a long time for the united states to annex texas?"

  1. "Answer" Texas was annexed by the United States and became part of the union on December 29, 1845 becoming the 28th state.

"how did the santa fe trail benefit the new mexico territory"

  1. The Santa Fe Trail was a 19th-century transportation route through central North America that connected Independence, Missouri with Santa Fe, New Mexico. Pioneered in 1821 by William Becknell, it served as a vital commercial highway until the introduction of the railroad to Santa Fe in 1880.

The New Mexico Territory

  1. In the early 1800, the land called New Mexico was a vast region between the Texas and California territories. It included all of the land that is now the states of New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and Utah and parts of Colorado and Wyoming.
  2. Native Americans had lived in the area for thousands of years. Spanish conquistadors, or soldiers, arrived in the late 1500s.
  3. They made the region part of Spain's American colonies. In 1610 the Spanish founded the settlement of Santa Fe.

" How did william becknell influence the american settlement of new mexico"

  1. "Answer" William Becknell was a soldier, politician, and freight operator who is credited with opening the Santa Fe Trail in 1821.The Santa Fe Trail was a 19th-century transportation route through central North America that connected Independence, Missouri with Santa Fe, New Mexico.

California's Spanish Culture

  1. Spanish explorers and missionaries from Mexico settled California in the 1700s. Captain Gaspar de Portola and Father Junipero Serra began a chain of missions that eventually extended from San Diego to Sonoma.
  2. In the 1840, more Americans reached California. John C. Fremont, an army officer, wrote of the region's mild climate and vast natural resources.

Conflict Begins

  1. President James K. Polk was determined to get the California and New Mexico territories from Mexico. After Mexico refused to sell the lands, Polk planned to gain the through war.
  2. Relations between the two countries were not friendly. The two nations disagreed about where the Texas-Mexico border was.
  3. To bring pressure, Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to lead U.S. forces into the disputed area on the Rio Grande.

A War Plan

  1. Polk planned to defeat Mexico by accomplishing three goals. First, the United States would drive Mexican forces out of Texas. Second, it would seize New Mexico and California.
  2. By 1847, Zachary Taylor had accomplished the first goal. His army had captured all the important towns in the border area between Mexico and Texas.

California's Uprising

  1. Even before war with Mexico officially began, American settlers in northern California had begun an uprising. They were encouraged by American general John C.Fremont.
  2. The settlers had little trouble overcoming the week official Mexican presence in the territory.

Peace Terms

  1. Defeated on February 2, 1848, Mexico's leaders sighed the treaty Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Mexico gave the United States more than 500,000 square miles of territory what are now the states of California, Nevada, and Utah, as well as most of Arizona and New Mexico and parts of Colorado and Wyoming.
  2. With Oregon and the former Mexican territories under the American flag, the dream of Manifest Destiny had been realized. The question of weather the new lands should allow slavery, however, would lead the country toward another bloody conflict.

"what did america gain from the mexican war?"

  1. As part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the United States also acquired all the Mexican territory between California and Texas. This included occupied regions such as New Mexico and Arizona. In addition, all or parts of Nevada, Utah, Wyoming and Colorado were transferred to the United States.

"how did the discovery of the gold help california"

  1. The California Gold Rush began at Sutter's Mill, near Coloma. On January 24, 1848, James W. Marshall, a foreman working for Sacramento pioneer John Sutter, found shiny metal in the tailrace of a lumber mill Marshall was building for Sutter on the American River.

California Gold Rush

  1. When gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill in 1848, people from all over the world traveled to California in search of riches. Those who arrived in 1849 were called forty-niners.
  2. As one official reported, "The farmers have thrown aside their plows, the lawyer their briefs, the doctors their pills, the priests their prayer books, and all are now digging gold."

The Californios

  1. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war with Mexico and made Californios Mexicans living in California citizens of the United States. The treaty also guaranteed the the rights to their lands. The land Law of 1851, however, established a group of reviewers who examined the Californio's land rights.

The Life of a Forty-Niner

  1. As the people rushed to a new area to look for gold, they built new communities. Towns and small cities appeared almost overnight.
  2. One site on the Yuba River had only two houses in September 1849. A year later, a miner arrived to find a bustling town of 1,000 people "With a large number of hotels, stores, groceries, bakeries, and gambling houses."

Gold Rush Society

  1. Mining camps contained men of all backgrounds but few women. Lonely and suffering hardships, many men spent their free hours drinking, gambling, and fighting.

Economic and Political Progress

  1. The Gold Rush lasting effects on California. Agriculture, shipping, and trade grew to meet the demand for food and other goods. Many people who had arrived looking for gold stayed to farm or run business.

"How did the california gold rush lead to the expansion of cities?"

  1. "Answer" it caused a huge number of people to move west and build towns which caused westward expansion.

A Religious Refuge in Utah

  1. While the Gold Rush was transforming California, change was also taking place in nearby Utah.
  2. There, Mormons, or members of the church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day saints.
  3. They were building a new community and fulfilling their vision of the godly life.

The Mormons Move on

  1. The church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was among a number of religious movements that sprang up during the religious awakening of the 1830s and 1840s.
  2. The founder of the Mormon church was Joseph Smith, a New Englander living in western New York.
  3. Smith said that he had received visions that led him to build a new church. He began preaching Mormon ideas in 1830.

A Haven in the Desert

  1. The Mormon migration began in 1846. About 12,000 Mormons made the trek in the largest single migration in America history.
  2. The Mormons route became known as the Mormons Trail and served as a valuable route to the western United States.
  3. By 1860s there were many Mormons communities, but Utah was not easily incorporated into the United States.

"Why did the mormons have to keep moving from one place to another?"

  1. "Answer" they moved west to escape the religion.

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