Swimming Into Oceans By: Lilly Pearson

Introduction

Did you know that 99 percent of Earth's animals live in the ocean? It's crazy, right?! There is much more crazy information on oceans if you continue reading. This essay will include the environment and the abiotic and biotic factors of the ocean. It will even explain the different producers, consumers, and decomposers. Keep reading to find more!

Enviornment

Some of the different plants and animals of the ocean.

The ocean is a wonderful place. It has so many different things to explore. You might see some of these things if you study the ocean very carefully. If you have ever been in the ocean, you know that it is a large body of water. But there are many different animals and plants to see in the ocean! The ocean is split up into three different parts - The Sunlight Zone, The Twilight Zone, and The Midnight Zone. The deeper you go it gets colder and darker.

Animals and Plants: There is a lot of animals and plants in the ocean. Some animals could be, whales, sea stars, and sea turtles - the list could go on and on. You may see very many animals and plants. Next, are the plants. Some plants that you might see are, phytoplankton, seaweed, kelp, and many more. You might see others plants and animals in other places in the ocean. You might even see antiques, but there is still much more!

AbIotic and Biotic factors

Some of the different Abiotic and Biotic factors of the ocean.

There are many different things in the ocean, including abiotic and biotic factors. Salt is abiotic. It is a particle in the water. Same with water, it is also abiotic. Even though water is what covers oceans, and it is what we drink, it is still abiotic. Sunlight helps different animals see, but it is also abiotic. Game can change up a bit. Almost all the plants and animals in oceans are biotic, even we are biotic. For example, sharks - but there are many more animals - and phytoplankton - as plants. Some more abiotic things are rocks, pebbles, and sand. You might even find sunken boats which is abiotic.

Producers, consumers, and decomposerS

The order of producers, consumers, and decomposers in the ocean.

What are producers, consumers, and decomposers? A producer ( usually a plant) gets energy from the sun to *produce* other organisms' energy. A consumer is the animal that eats the producer to get the energy. Another animal can then eat the consumer and gets energy from that animal. This makes this animal a consumer as well. A decomposer is an organism that feeds of decaying matter - like another dead animal. This is an example of a food chain. Let's say there is some kelp. Some small fish come and eat the kelp. Then a penguin eats the small fish. This is also an example of a food chain. Now that we know what they are, here are some examples: seawee, kelp, and phytoplankton - as producers. Small fish, whales, penguins, and sharks are just some consumers. The most common decomposers are bacteria and fungi.

Organisms' Interactions

Predator (the shark), prey (the small fish), a parasite (the bacteria), and a host (the octopus). These are the different organisms in the ocean.

How do different organisms interact with each other in the ocean? The organisms have different organisms to go with them to make an interaction with the other organism. For example a predator goes with the prey, and the parasite goes with the host. For example: a tapeworm (the parasite) can get inside of a dog's body (the host) and make the dog very sick. Same thing in the ocaen, but now let's switch it up. Let's say there is a very hungry penguin. The hungry penguin dives in the ocean in search of food - maybe small fish. He finally finds some and gobbles them up. The penguin is now a predator and the small fish are prey. Now for parasite and host as a pair: let's say there is some sort of bacteria spreading and it is killing a lot of animals and plants. It spreads around and a fish catches it. Then a shark comes and eats up the fish that has the bacteria. The bacteria is a parasite and the shark and fish are both the hosts.

Limiting Factors

Temperature and sunlight are the main limiting factors of the ocean. On the left is a picture of sunlight and on the right is a map of the different temperatures in different oceans.

What are the limiting factors of the ocean? The main limiting factors are temperature and sunlight. Temperature helps animals live in certain places of the ocean, for example: anglerfish live at the bottom of the ocean because they can stand the coldness of the water. The ocean is split up into three different parts, the sunlight zone, the twilight zone, and the midnight zone. In the sunlight zone, also known as the euphotic zone, temperatures can range from 104 to 27 degrees Fahrenheit. In the twilight zone, also known as the disphotic  zone, temperatures can range from 41 to 39 degrees Fahrenheit. In the midnight zone, temperatures are nearly freezing! The sunlight zone is the place in the ocean that is surrounded by sunlight, which helps animals see. The twilight zone is the place in the ocean where there is not much light. The midnight zone is the darkest place in the ocean, where there is no light at all. Without sunlight, the creatures and plants that use the sunlight to survive would make the larger creatures starve. This would throw off the entire ocean ecosystem.

Human effects

Some of the ways that people can hurt the ocean but not realize it.

Sometimes if we are not careful, we might harm the ocean and not realize how bad it affects it. What are some ways that people harm the ocean. Most pollution in the ocean starts on land. Sometimes when large areas are plowed, the soil can flow down, during a rainstorm, to a nearby ocean. One of the biggest sources is called nonpoint source pollution, which occurs from runoff. Nonpoint source pollution includes many small sources like cars, trucks, and boats, plus larger sources, such as farms, ranches, and forests. Millions of vehicle engines drop small amounts of oil or gas on roads and parking lots, then makes its way to a nearby ocean. When pollution happens the chemical can sink down to the bottom of the ocean and kill many plants and animals. Sometimes people can accidentally spilling oil in the ocean, but others are just careless. If you are on a boat, sometimes the equipment might break and leak. Also if a country is going to war, terrorists might bring gallons of oil and dump it into the ocean. Some people think it's okay to throw garbage into oceans, but do they really think about what that can do to wildlife? Some people just d it for fun. It had actually got so bad, that something horrible happened in the North Pacific Ocean. The Great Pacific Garbage Patch, also known as the Pacific trash vortex, is a collection of marine debris. Now we can answer that question, " Do they really think about what that can do to wildlife?" The answer is NO!!!!

Conclusion

This essay included the environment, plus the abiotic and biotic factors of the ocean. It also explained the producers, consumers, and decomposers of the ocean. Even the different organisms' interactions, limiting factors, and human effects, were explained. Now a challenge just for you: Go to a nearby ocean and explore the different wildlife! Have fun!

Glossary

A

Abiotic- Organisms that are nonliving

B

Biotic- Organisms that are living

D

Disphotic- A zone in the ocean that means "poorly lit" in Greek, or "middle sea" in Mesopelagic.

E

Euphotic- A zone in the ocean that means "well lit" in Greek

H

Host- An organism that gets sick because of the parasite.

M

Marine Debris- Is litter that ends up in oceans, seas, and other large bodies of water.

P

Parasite- An organism that gets inside of another animal and makes them sick.

Predator- A consumer that kills another animal and eats it.

Prey- An organism that is killed by the predator.

Credits:

Created with images by Pok_Rie - "wave water ocean"

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