What specific elements make up the device?

The elements found in an iPhone battery are lithium, carbon, cobalt, aluminum and oxygen. An iPhone has a lithium-ion battery which contains the ionic compound lithium cobalt oxide. In the battery lithium cobalt oxide is the positive electron and graphite (carbon) is the negative electron. The battery's casing is made from aluminum. Some batteries in other phones use other metals like manganese instead of cobalt.

For your device what materials can be re-used and what materials could potentially be hazardous?

The battery of an iPhone contains various metals, these metals can be recycled. Recycling batteries is good for the environment because is keeps them out of landfills, where heavy metals could leak into the ground when the battery's casing corrodes, which can cause soil and water pollution.

Where specifically do these elements come from in the world?

A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery contains mostly lithium. Lithium can be mined all over the world. For example in the United States lithium is recovered from brine pools in Nevada. Australia produced the most lithium in the world in 2016, producing 14,300 tonnes of lithium. Lithium can also be found in igneous rocks.

Is your device easily recycled?

Apple has a program called "Reuse and Recycle". In this program an old iPhone can be brought in and re-sold or a it can by properly recycled in a special recycling plant.

What length of time does the average person keep your device before it is replaced?

On average a person keeps an iPhone for about 3 years. In our new world of technology, 3 years is a long time. This is because technology advances almost everyday. In most countries iPhone's cans easily be replaced or upgraded almost instantly when ready. But that isn't the case everywhere, for example in a place like India where Apple is trying to sell 3-4 -year -old iPhone's, you can find people using their iPhone's for 4-5 years.

Using a map of the world explain where your device has more usage rates and where the largest growth market is occurring.

iPhone's (IOS) usage rates are higher in North America and Australia
Apple revenues by product line

Societal, environmental and economic pros and cons of my device

Some societal pros about an iPhone is that it can be used to contact anyone from around the world at anytime by calls, texts or social media. An iPhone also gives you the power of figuring out anything with just a simple google search. Another pro about an iPhone is using it for entertainment, for example listening to music, watching YouTube videos etc. Some societal cons about iPhone's is that it can be a distraction to some, for example teenagers getting addicted to games and social media and procrastinating instead of doing stuff like homework. Another societal con about an iPhone is that using it too much and too frequently close to your eyes can eventually weaken eyesight and damage eyes.

There aren't any environmental pros to having an iPhone but there are some cons. An environmental con about iPhone's is the materials needed to make an iPhone have to be taken from the earth, such as different elements. Also making iPhone's in factories cause things like air pollution. Another environmental con is that if one does not dispose of an iPhone properly and just throws it in the trash, it will end up in a landfill where overtime, hazardous elements can be leaked into the ground.

An economic pro about an iPhone is that an iPhone's are so popular that Apple makes a lot of money on a new phones release. A economic con is that the iPhone doesn't sell as much everywhere around the world so Apple doesn't make as much money in certain places


A. (2016, April 15). For how long does an iPhone last on an average? -. Retrieved May 05, 2017, from http://techbakbak.com/long-iphone-average/

Barbosa, G., & Greg Barbosa @gregbarbosa Greg Barbosa is the Product Manager at Electrek, 9to5Google, 9to5Mac, and 9to5Toys and a writer for 9to5Mac. (2016, February 17). Here’s what happens to your old iPhone under Apple’s ‘Reuse & Recycle’ program. Retrieved May 05, 2017, from https://9to5mac.com/2016/02/17/recycled-iphone-what-happens/

Cite a Website - Cite This For Me. (2017). Compoundchem.com. Retrieved 5 May 2017, from http://www.compoundchem.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/The-Chemical-Elements-of-a-Smartphone-v2.png

Renew and Recycling. (n.d.). Retrieved April 30, 2017, from https://www.apple.com/ca/recycling/

The Environmental Impact Of Cell Phones. (n.d.). Retrieved April 30, 2017, from http://visual.ly/environmental-impact-cell-phones

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