Life in the North By Jillian & Megan & Makenzie


There were low wages

They worked from 4:00 am to 7:30 pm

Whole families worked including children

No heating systems and windows

Injuries were common and sicknesses spread easily

Factory workers faced discomforts and dangers

A young girl named Azema, who just turned 13, got her fingers caught in a spinning machine and then the foreman called the doctor who cut off one of her fingers and sent her back to work.

The workers fight back

In the 1820's and 30's artisans (skilled workers) created trade unions and they called for shorter work days, higher wadges, and better working conditions

They gained the demands and they went on strike (workers who refuse to do their jobs)

Strikes were illegal in most parts of the United States. Those whom striked were either fined, fired, or had jail sentences

In 1840, President Van Buren approved a 10 hour work day

In 1842 the court of Massachusetts declared that workers had a right to strike

Women workers organize

Women had many problems such as:

1. Always earn less money then men

2. Many believed that women belonged in the home

3. Union leaders did not believe that women should be ranked

Women had strikes in Lowell, Massachusetts in the 1830's

In the 1840's a woman named Sarah Bagley created the Lowell Female Labor Reform Association

A new wave of immigrants

In the late 1840's many factory workers were immigrants

During the 40's 4 million immigrants arrived in the United States, most of which were Irish and German

The irish

For the Irish, a disease destroyed the potato crops which caused thousands to die from starvation. They also had oats and wheat but because they were under British rule, British land owners continued to ship crops to England, this caused a famine (a severe food shortage)

1.5 million Irish fled to the United States

The germans

Harsh weather conditions from 1829 and 1830 also resulted in famine

Two years later more then 10,000 Germans had come to the United States

1848 revolutions and strikes were broken into Germany. Rebels fought for democratic reforms in result, thousands fled

Between 1848 and 1860 over 1 million Germans fled to the United States

African Americans in the north

All northern states had outlawed slavery by this time. As a result, thousands of free Native Americans roamed freely around the north. With freedom comes discrimination (a policy or an attitude that denies equal rights to certain groups of people)

African Americans were denied "the ballot-box, the jury box, the halls of legislature, the army, the public lands, the school, and the church"

Skilled African Americans could not find good jobs. Despite this, some achieved success in business. Areas included a lumberyard, furniture company, an inventor that created the corn planter and cottonseed planter, one even became licensed to practice law! Another became the editor of freedoms journal, the first African American journal.

Sarah bagley

She was born April 19, 1806 in New Hampshire and passed away in 1808 though her death date is not certain

In 1835, Bagley worked at the Hamilton Mills in Lowell Massachusetts

Due to a strike, Sarah, along with thousands of others, moved to Middlesex mills to replace the protesters.

December 1844, Bagley and 5 other women created the Lowell Female Labor Reform Association. This was to improve health conditions and shorten the work day to ten hours. They published The Voice of Industry, a women's labor magi zine which Bagley contributed in frequently

She was part of the thousands of petitions and fights against the Massachusetts work hours to just 10 hours

She was fired from The Voice of Industry and then became he first female telegrapher when hired by the New York and Boston Magnetic Telegraph Co.

She married James Durno on November 13, 1850 and they moved to Albany where they both became Homeopathic Physicians

Sarah Bagley
One of her articles


Created By
jillian and Megan and Makenzie Period 2-3

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