Civics Unit One Study Guide ReI FUNAKOSHI ANDERSON

Terms:

  • Social contract: People give up rights to a Leviathan (a powerful ruler/government) in order to have security
  • Common Good: Things that are shared beneficial for the community
  • Political Parties: Parties that offer alternatives to voters and help connect citizens to their government
  • Representative Democracy: Type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy
  • The Enlightenment: Philosophical movement in the 18th century, Challenged authority
  • John Locke: He believes we humans are born as a blank slate, Natural Rights, Optimist
  • Jean Jacque Rousseau: He argued that the only good government was one that was freely formed and was guided by the general will of people. Argued that the Social Contract was an agreement between free individuals to create a fair and balanced government
  • Thomas Hobbes: Thinks all individuals are equal but pessimistic about humans; everyone against each other
  • Baron de Montesquieu: people are power hungry, are fear-driven to form societies. Separated government into 3
  • The Magna Carta: Signed by King John after "encouragement" by the nobles. Defined the rights and duties of English nobles in order to limit the King's power
  • The English Bill of Rights: Reaffirmed principal of individual rights (rights to bear arms, right to trial by jury, right to petition the King, right to fair trail, etc.)
  • Committee: a group of people appointed for a specific function
  • Apportionment: determination of the proportional number of members each US state sends to the House of Representatives, based on population figures
  • Gerrymandering: redrawing political boundaries to favor a specific parties
  • Redistricting redrawing the district
  • Expressed, Delegated Powers: Those specifically named in the constitution
  • Implied Powers: powers not explicitly named in the Constitution but assumed to exist
  • Inherent Powers: powers that Congress and the president need in order to get the job done right
  • Reserved Powers: powers which are not "enumerated" (written down, assigned)
  • Privileges and Immunities: prevents a state from treating citizens of other states in a discriminatory manner, its important to stop wars from happening

Government Types:

  • Democracy: government based upon the "consent of the governed", it is usually practiced in the form of a republic or constitutional monarchy, which provides checks and balances and an establishment that is able to tap an unruly mob on its collective head.
  • Dictatorship: Rule by a dictator instead of a despot. Technically, a dictatorship is where the executive holds a disproportionate amount of power
  • Republic: US definition: Rule by elected individuals representing the citizen body and exercising power according to the rule of law.
  • Anarchy: Anarchy is lack of a central government, as there is no one recognized governing authority; in anarchy there is no effective government and each individual has absolute liberty. (Doesn't mean there are no law)
  • Monarchy: Rule by an individual for life or until abdication, often hereditary. On a positive note, a monarchy usually possesses more checks and balances than an autocracy or dictatorship.

Importance of Committees:

The importance of Committees in the legislative process is that to think if the parliament, idea is positive for the state

The way individuals can have voice in their government is that they could just tell them but have specific information and you agree our disagree.

Political Beginnings notes

Magna Carta: Signed by King John after "encouragement" by the nobles. Defined the rights and duties of English nobles in order to limit the King's power

English Bill of Rights: Reaffirmed principal of individual rights (rights to bear arms, right to trial by jury, right to petition the King, right to fair trail, etc.)

Theories of Power: Devine Right, Social Contract..... Divine right was a theory that the rulers were chosen by god. Social contract was basically an agreement between the people of the state and the gov't. the people agreed to abide by the rules(give them power) in exchange for giving them security, services, and rights

  • SOCIAL CONTRACT is.... people give up rights to a Leviathan(a powerful ruler/gov.) in order to have security
  • HOBBES: Pessimistic about humans; everyone against each other, argued that society could only be run by an absolutely monarchy
  • MONTESQUIEU: People are power-hungry, people are fear-driven to form societies, Separation of power in government (3 branches)
  • ROUSSEAU: The Social Contract, Rousseau argued that the only good government was one that was freely formed and was guided by the general will of the people, his view of the social contract differed from Hobber's, R argued that the social contract was an agreement between free individuals to create a fair and balanced government
  • LOCKE: We are all born as a blank slate (we are all born equal society makes us different), Natural Rights, states exist to preserve life, liberty and property, consent of the governed, people have right to revolt if gov't doesn't provide these rights

ARTICALS OF CONFEDERATION:

The overreaction of the American colonies started a war, It influenced the policy by, that the Articles of Confederation was made, which led to the Shay's Rebellion (the weakness)

Shay's Rebellion: At Massachusetts, Armed uprising led by Daniel Shay, 4000 armed Rebels upset Economic and civil injustices, neither the states not the AOC had troops to put it down, Wealthy donated money to raise a militia, Caused the states to see the need, for a stronger Federal Government.

CONSTITUTION CONVENTION

  • 1787
  • Philadelphia
  • Delegates from all the states invited to a convention to improve the AOC

Preamble is the introduction of the constitution, says about what the "Founding Fathers" wanted to achieve

  • Judicial Branch: Interpret law, Checking executive: Can declare treaties and executive acts unconstitutional. Appointments are for life, an judges are free from executive control. Checking Legislative: Can declare laws unconstitutional.
  • Executive Branch: Enforce laws, Checking Judicial: Can nominate Supreme Court justices and federal judges. Checking Legislative: Can approve or veto bills, call special sessions of Congress, and recommended legislation.
  • Legislative Branch: Create law, Checking Judicial: Can approve or reject nomination of federal judges, create lower courts, and remove judges through impeachment. Checking Executive: Can override presidential vetoes, approve or reject presidential appointments and treaties, and impeach and try the president.

First 10 amendments

  • Amendment 1 - Freedom of Religion, Speech, and the Press
  • Amendment 2 - The Right to Bear Arms
  • Amendment 3 - The Housing of Soldiers
  • Amendment 4 - Protection from Unreasonable Searches and Seizures
  • Amendment 5 - Protection of Rights to Life, Liberty, and Property
  • Amendment 6 - Rights of Accused Persons in Criminal Cases
  • Amendment 7 - Rights in Civil Cases
  • Amendment 8 - Excessive Bail, Fines, and Punishments Forbidden
  • Amendment 9 - Other Rights Kept by the People
  • Amendment 10 - Undelegated Powers Kept by the States and the People
  • Federalism is the Power to Federal and State government
  • Terms and examples: a political system in which power is divided between a central government and smaller regional governments.

Credits:

Created with images by helen35 - "parliament house canberra australia" • ChrisWilliams - "town hall huddersfield building" • Olichel - "flag american usa" • Unsplash - "statue of liberty landmark liberty" • DHuiz - "Trump Tower" • starmanseries - "Government Publications" • 271277 - "obama barack obama president" • Unsplash - "building columns architecture" • angela n. - "Library of Congress" • Pexels - "blue building pattern"

Report Abuse

If you feel that this video content violates the Adobe Terms of Use, you may report this content by filling out this quick form.

To report a Copyright Violation, please follow Section 17 in the Terms of Use.