A Revolutionary War The American War of Independence

The colonists resist the British military. The governor of Massachusetts is removed. General Gage is name the new governor. General Gage sends British soldiers to confiscate guns. They get in a gun battle with the local militia. The militia called itself the Minute Men.

As the British march back to Boston, they are attacked. The colonists hide in the trees. They hide in the bushes. They hide behind stone fences. They shoot one British soldier after another. The British soldier’s red coat seems the say: “shoot me please.”

The “Battle of Lexington” is the start. It’s the beginning of the armed rebellion. From that moment forward, the two sides are shooting it out.

The British find the war hard fighting. The American colonists do not gather in a large square. They do not shoot at their enemy until one side runs. The colonists fight frontier style. Much as the Native Americans fight. They hide and ambush. The British military doesn’t know how to fight this type of a war.

The war goes on for years. The British navy can capture any port city. The British take and hold cities. They can seize Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Charleston. They have no success outside of the big port cities. In the countryside the colonist fight to win. If they can’t win, they just run off. Retreat. Avoid the British army. “Never lose a decisive battle.” That is General George Washington’s military plan.

The British can control the cities. The colonists control the hinterland. That’s the countryside inland. Neither can defeat the other.

The colonists are in need of help. They need money. They need guns. They need training. They need discipline. They need clothes. They need food. They need fuel too to keep them warm in their winter quarters. The winter at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania is brutal for the colonists.

They need some way to stop the British navy. The British navy can move soldiers from one place to another quickly. The Americans have to march the entire distance. The British navy brings food, guns, gunpowder, and other supplies. General Washington has problems getting supplies.

Knock out the British navy. Knock out the navy even for a week. It would help the Americans.

The American colonists in 1777 defeat a British army at Saratoga, New York. The victory is critical. It prevents the British from isolating New England. If the British won, they could cut New England off from all the other colonies. The victory impresses the French. They think the colonists might have an outside chance. They think the colonist can make life miserable for the British. The French provide aid. They provide money. They provide some military officers.

In the end, the French tip the war to the American colonists. The French fleet momentarily manages to hold off the British.

This leaves Cornwallis trapped at Yorktown, Virginia. Cornwallis must surrender. He surrenders the largest British army in North America to the colonists and the French.

Britain is left with a choice. Raise a completely new army. Send it to America. Resume the war. Or Britain could give up the colonies.

Cost is the deciding factor.

The British are tired of this war. The British people don’t want the expense of the war. Britain will accept American independence. The most valuable part of Britain’s North American empire is gone. Britain stays North America. It still owns Canada. It will remain there for another century as the colonial ruler.

The American colonists develop big dreams. Some dream of grabbing Canada. They want it to be part of the United States. The first American constitution is called the Articles of Confederation. It allows the lands of Canada to become part of the United States. Canadians want nothing of it.

Canadians accept the colonists who remained loyal to Britain. They are chased out of the United States by the state governments. These loyalists come to live in eastern Canada. This fact makes many Americans very anti-Canadian. The United States will try to seize Canada in the War of 1812. It will fail. Canadians stay loyal to Britain. They successfully fight of the American invasion.

Relations between Britain, British Canada, and the United States will be tense for over a decade. However, with time, the British and Americans become more friendly to one another.

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