Judaism was established around 2000 B.C. as part of the covenant between God and Abraham. Judaism was founded in the Middle East. Judaism was one of the first major religions to believe in one God. The last Jewish prophet is acknowledged to have been Malachi. Christianity was born from within the Jewish tradition, and Islam developed from both Christianity and Judaism.
Judaism is a monotheistic religion and was believed to be God's call to Abraham, they believe that someday God will send a messiah. The Torah is used in this religion, the Torah is made up of five books of Moses: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. Jews worship in synagogues by a rabbi or cantor. Jews believe that God appointed them to be his chosen people to set examples of holiness and good examples to the world.
The sects within this religion is that they are separated into branches including Orthodox, Reform, Conservative, Hasidism, Kabbalah, Zionism, and Reconstructionist. The following are the most important and practiced in the Jewish religion. Orthodox is the oldest sect, they believe that Moses received the Torah from God on Mount Sinai. The second oldest branch is Reform, this branch was the first group in Jewish history to deny the Torah's origin from God. The Conservative branch is a modern day branch of the religion, it avoids the extremes of the Orthodox and Reform branches, they observe the Sabbath and dietary laws.
There are many holidays and celebrations that the Jewish people celebrate. Yom Kippur is the holiest day in the Jewish calendar. During Yom Kippur, Jews do not eat or drink for 25 hours. The purpose of this is to reflect on the past year and gain forgiveness from God for one's sins. Yom Kippur falls in September or October, this is 10 days after Rosh Hashanah (the Jewish New Year). Rosh Hashanah is the anniversary of the creation of Adam and Eve. Passover is the Jewish holiday that celebrates the deliverance of the Jewish people from slavery in Egypt. Hanukkah is the Jewish holiday that is a 8 day celebration that celebrates the victory over the Syrians and reviving the Temple of Jerusalem.
This is the menorah that marks each day of Hanukkah.