Match makers were required to dip little wooden sticks into yellow phosphorus to create the match head. This job causes a lot of suffering of young women as this chemical was one that could cause a lot of damage to the human body.
The main candidates for the job as a match maker were the young women. Mainly between 13 and 16. They had little hands which were best for holding the little sticks. Children were also cheaper labour and didn't take away stronger, fully grown adults that would be better for the more labouring jobs. There were also some older women (see above), who were no longer capable for the more labouring jobs.
Fire was a crucial element to surviving in the industrial revolution. Without fire, they wouldn't be able to burn coal, cook food or run machinery. There were people that wanted to make fire accessible for all. Fire lit lamps and candles were a main source of light and they needed to be lit somehow. That is why matches were made. They were also cheap and quick to make so businesses had much profit, especially when using child labour.
When dipping, the workers were exposed to dangerous amounts of phosphorous. These chemicals made them sick and caused many of the girls to lose their teeth. This was called Phossy Jaw by the girls who worked in the industry. Here is a quote for the symptoms of Phossy Jaw.