In the 15th century, the northern European countries we know today as Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg were controlled by the enormously wealthy Dukes of france
born in the Franconian city of Nuremberg
Durer apprenticed with his father, who was a goldsmith, and with the local painter Michael Wolgemut
Holbein was a German artist and printmaker who worked in a Northern Renaissance style. He is best known for his numerous portraits and his woodcut series of the Dance of Death, and is widely considered one of the finest portraitists of the Early Modern Period.
Van Eyck was an Early Netherlandish painter active in Bruges and considered one of the best Northern European painters of the 15th century.
Bruegel was a Netherlandish painter and printmaker known for his landscapes. but is also the one generally meant when the context does not make clear which "Bruegel" is being referred to. From 1559 he dropped the 'h' from his name and started signing his paintings as Bruegel.
Erasmus had European religious Reformation, but while he was critical of the abuses within the Catholic Church and called for reform, he kept his distance from Luther and Melanchthon and continued to recognise the authority of the pope.
Christian humanism emphasizes the humanity of Jesus, his social teachings and his propensity to synthesize human spirituality and materialism.
Christine de Pizan
French poet and author Christine de Pisan was born in 1364 in Venice, Italy. Widowed, she took up writing to support herself. Her first poems were ballads of lost love written in memory of her husband.