Chapter 8 By Ryan tariche

Watson & Crick

Watson and Crick discovers the double-helix structure of DNA in 1952. They suggested in the summer of 1952 that DNA was made of 2 chains of nucleotide, each in a helix with one going up and one going down. They showed that each strand of DNA molecule was a template for the other and during cell division the 2 strands separate and a new other half is built just like the one before so DNA can reproduce itself without changing its structure.

Chargaff's rule

Chargaff's rule states that DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 1:1 ratio of pyrimidine and purine bases and that the amount of guanine is equal to cytosineand the amount of adenine is equal to thymine.

How do the Base Pairs bind?

Base pairing in DNA occurs when 2 nucleobases bind to each other by hydrogen bonds. They form the building blocks of the DNA double helix and contribute to the folded structure of DNA.

What is a Chromosome?

A chromosome is a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells. They carry genetic information in the form of genes.

What is a karyotype?

A karyotype is the number and visual appearances of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species.

How does DNA replicate?

DNA replicates when the double helix is unwound and each strand acts as a template for the next strand. The bases are matched to synthesize the new partner strands. The final product is 2 identical replica molecules of DNA from 1 original DNA molecule.

What damages DNA?

A break in the strand of DNA, a base missing from a backbone and a chemically changed base are all ways for DNA to be damaged.

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