Bandwagon- A claim that an idea should be accepted because a large number of people favor it or believe it to be true. One example could be the "Rachel" haircut that was very popular in the late 90's. Another example could be Mcdonalds sign saying "99 billion served"
Hasty- In which a conclusion is not logically justified by sufficient or unbiased evidence. One example could be "Four out of five dentists recommend Colgate toothpaste brand. Therefore, it must be great." Another example could be "My father smoked four packs of cigarettes a day since age fourteen and lived until age sixty-nine. Therefore, smoking really can’t be that bad for you."
False Analogy- The assumption that because two things are alike in some respects, they are alike in others. One example is "That's why, under my plan, individuals will be required to carry basic health insurance -- just as most states require you to carry auto insurance. Likewise, businesses will be required to either offer their workers health care, or chip in to help cover the cost of their workers." President Obama. Another example is "There are seven windows given to animals in the domicile of the head: two nostrils, two eyes, two ears, and a mouth. . . . From this and many other similarities in Nature, too tedious to enumerate, we gather that the number of planets must necessarily be seven."
Circular reasoning- An argument in which the writer, instead of applying evidence simply restates the point in other language. Example #1: “Women have a right to choose whether to have an abortion or not, therefore abortion should be allowed” Example #2: "We can't have the public option, because if we do, health care reform won't get the votes of senators like him." -Senator Kent Conrad.
Red Herring- An argument that focuses on an irrelevant issue that detract attention from the real issue. Example #1: We need more revenue to support the programs that we have. Children are our future. Let’s support children. Example #2: “The crime in this city, has, in fact increased lately. However, let’s consider that the weather has changed as well. Things change over time. Sometimes they are linked, sometimes they are not, but only time will tell"