RAMESSES THE 2ND Ancient History

Ramesses II, also known as Ozymandias and as Ramesses the Great. He was the third Pharaoh of the 19th dynasty, known to the Egyptians as Userma’atre’setepenre, meaning 'Keeper of Harmony and balance', 'strong in right', and the 'elect of Ra'. He lived to 96 years old, between 1279-1213 BCE.

Ancient Egypt. Located in North Eastern Africa, below the Mediterranean Sea and West of the Red Sea.
Egypt and its neighbors: Israel to the North East, Sudan to the south, Libya to the West and Palestine from the East

The Amarna Period influenced the 19th dynasty with the ruling of king Tutankhamen, a boy king, his mother Nefertiti made a religious revolution. Insisting that everyone within Egypt only worship/believe in one god instead of the hundreds that they had believed in for thousands of years. The gods name was Akhenaten, the 'heretic pharaoh', abdicated and his son Tutankhamen eventually inherited the throne.

Ramses had a massive impact on religion too (so here will be listed only a few of the things he did). Under his command the country turned completely back to the religion cult that was practiced before the heretic king Akhenaton came to power and established the Aton cult as religion (Aton was then the only God). After 30 years of ruling Ramses II celebrated the Sed festival, where a Pharaoh was officially turned into a complete God. With this step he also helped to set up the power of his follower on the throne. Ramses was worshiped as God, so as Merneptah took over as Pharaoh nobody tried to seize the throne.

The 19th dynasty was founded by Vizier Ramesses I, it was best known for its military conquests in Canaan. When Egypt was under the rule of Ramesses II and Seti I, both campaigned heavily against the Hitties and the Libyans. Seti I concerned the city of Kadesh, but the king gave it back to Muwatalli of Hatti in an informal peace treaty between the two countries.

Son of Seti I and Tuya, he had many wives, his favourite was Nefertari, who is grand daughter oh Pharoh Ay. Ramesses II had many children but his successor to the throne was Merneptah.

Early Years: Ramses II was born in the year 1303 B.C. as the youngest son of Sethi I and his great royal wife Tuya. He had an older brother with name Nebchasetnebe who was original suppose to be Pharaoh after Sethi I but he died during his education. The first really important event in the life of Ramses was probably as his grandfather Ramses I became crowned in the year 1291 B.C. (Ramses was probably 5 years old at that point). Than two years later, after his grandfather died, his own father Sethi I became Pharaoh ( in the year 1290 B.C.).

Co-regency: Before Ramesses took the throne for himself, he shared it with Seti I. his father showed what it was to be a pharaoh, how to rule Egypt. with this coupling, some historians believe Ramesses was the inferior of the pair so when Seti I died Ramesses would be fine and need no help.

Career: Ramesses first military campaign was the Battle of Kadesh. The Battle of Kadesh was fought just outside of Kadesh at the river of Orontes, a river that today flows through Turkey into Lebanon and Syria. Kadesh is found in present day Syria. Ramesses army was 20000 men strong, Muwatalli II had 4000 men. On the 12th of May 1274 B.C.

Ramesses erected many buildings/temples/monuments during his time of reign. one of his most popular was built in Nubia. The Abu Simbel, a cliffside carving started by Seti I but mostly done by Ramesses. There was a smaller temple dedicated to Nefertari his first and favourite queen.

The Ramesseum took 20 years to build under the rule of Ramesses. Located in the Theban Necropolis, it is dedicated to the memory of Ramesses II and the God Amon Ra.

Within Ramesses 67 year reign, he built a new city. Pi-Ramesses also referred to as 'House Of Ramesses, Great Of Victory.' It was the third religious city in Egypt, located on the Eastern Delta. It was distinguished for its elaborate decorations and size. Believed to house thirty thousand people, temples where erected in honor of various gods, including Re, Amun, Ptah and Seth.

Despite being the one of the most powerful men on earth during his life, Ramesses II did not have much control over his physical remains after his death. While his mummified body was originally buried in the tomb KV7 in the Valley of the Kings, looting by grave robbers prompted the Egyptian priests to move his body to a safer resting place. Today, the mummy of this great pharaoh rests in the Cairo Museum in Egypt.

Though Ramesses is known for his contribution to constructions within Egypt, there is a detailed amount of evidence to support his role within the military and religious administration of the empire. His most significant achievements including, The Battle of Kadesh in year five of his reign and the political alliances between the Hittites and Egypt in year twenty-one of his reign.

Credits:

Created with images by Walkerssk - "giza pyramid pyramids of giza" • Walkerssk - "giza pyramid pyramids of giza" • imedias - "egypt columns luxor" • Alexas_Fotos - "statue egypt fig" • jarekgrafik - "egypt ancient archeology" • Argenberg - "Ramesses II (2007-05-359)" • isawnyu - "Portico of the Seti I Temple at Abydos (IV)" • David Berkowitz - "Temple of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel, Egypt" • Argenberg - "Ramesseum (2007-05-579)" • Jorge Lascar - "Statue of Ramesses II with his daughter,Princess Bint-Anta between his legs flanking the second Pylon" • Maryam62 - "camel mount decorated"

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