Biotech Project By Michael Davis

Cloning is the process of using genetic material to produce an identical copy of an organism or other biological entity. There are many processes that can be used to successfully clone an organism. There are three different types of cloning. Genetic cloning, therapeutic cloning, and reproductive cloning.

Cloning is currently in use now. It is a currently in use. It is very beneficial for the human race. Although it is beneficial for the scientific and medical fields, some disagree saying that it is unnatural and unsafe.

Genetically modified organisms are found everywhere in our modern world. When you think about the concept it is rather simplistic. A scientist takes a gene from one organism, and forces it into a different organism. This process allows for stronger organisms to be made, like bug resistant plants. Organisms like this would be considered “transgenic”, as the process previously described causes for some of their genes to be transferred.

This biological technology is surrounded with ethical issues. People don't trust genetically modified food. They don't want to eat it if it is unnatural. This process is viewed as playing god by some religious people, as scientists can alter an organism’s genetic code and therefore the organism's traits.

Stem Cell Research is an important, but highly controversial practice. It has the potential to aid in a multitude of medicinal issues. There seem to be three opinions on the matter. First, some people are all for stem cell research. Second, some people are blatantly against it. Third, some just don't want embryos tested on. The third group would rather voluntary adult donors give up stem cells that scientists could research.

Embryonic stem cell research is much more versatile. While adult stem cells can only turn into different cell types of their original tissue, embryonic stem cells can become any type of cell. Embryonic and adult stem cell research is currently going on.

DNA fingerprinting is a useful tool. It allows forensic scientist to discover the identity of the unidentifiable. For example, an assailing in a mask robs someone but leaves a fingerprint on the doorknob to their home. The forensic scientists that work with the police department can use that individual's fingerprint and DNA to get a positive identification for the suspect.

DNA plays a huge role in crime scene investigation. Any trace evidence of DNA whether it be a hair, saliva deposit, or any other form of human byproduct can be tested to identify a suspect. Though DNA is usually very accurate when it comes to conviction rates, this isn’t always the case.

Personal ancestry kits allow a person to use their own genetic Information to discover where they descend from. For example, an ancestry kit might let a person know they are 40 percent African, 25 percent European, and 35 percent Asian. These kits also give you the ability to see if you have a family history of certain diseases or disorders.

P.C.R. , or the polymerase chain reaction, is used to multiply a specific DNA strand sample in order to better study it. This is a very beneficial scientific process that allows a scientists to test a piece of DNA, yet prevents said scientists from ruining the initial sample. This reaction aids in the pursuit of new developments in the study of genetics by lowering the difficulty level so to speak.

Gel electrophoresis is a technique used to separate mixtures of DNA, rna, or proteins based on molecular size. The process works by using an electrical field to push molecules through a gel that has small pores in it. The electrical field is negatively charged while the gel has a positive charge.

Plasmids are parts of cell that can replicate independently from the chromosomes. They are commonly used in the manipulation of genes. They can be easily found in bacterium as shown, or protozoan organisms. Recombinant DNA is DNA that has been “recombined” using traits from different organisms. Recombinant DNA is used in organism manipulation, like making glowing pigs with fluorescent genes for example. Transgenic organisms are organisms that have had the genes of other organisms added to them. Because of this they act differently and help scientists research the effects of gene manipulation.

Sources

https://www.genome.gov/25020028/cloning-fact-sheet/#al-1

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?

doi=10.1.1.436.1030&rep=rep1&type=pdf

https://www.nongmoproject.org/gmo-facts/

https://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/5.htm

http://www.cuhk.edu.hk/english/features/bioethics.html

http://www.whatisepigenetics.com/fundamentals/

http://www.exploreforensics.co.uk/DNA-fingerprinting.html

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