Rivalry In The Northwest
- The Oregon Country was a huge area on the Pacific coast north of California.
- Four nations claimed the Oregon Country, these nations were The United States, Great Britain, Russia, and Spain.
- The Organ Country gave America access to the Pacific.
- America and Britain setteled for joint occupation which meant people from both countries could settle there.
Mountain Men In Oregon
- Mountain Men are fur traders, they violently kill animals for their skin.
- Most Mountain Men had Native American wives.
- Beaver was in high demand over in Europe
What did America gain from the Adams-Onis Treaty?
They gained territory from Oregon Country.
Oregon and Manifest Destiny
Marcus and Narcissa Whitman
- Marcus and Narcissa Whitman were one of the first families to settle in Oregon.
- They were missionaries who went to Oregon in 1836.
Along The Oregon Trail
- Pioneers who went to Oregon were called emigrants because they left the United States to go to Oregon.
- In 1843 about 1,000 emigrants made the journey to Oregon.
- Most started their journey off in Independence Missouri or other town around there.
America Seeks Its Manifest Destiny
- America thought of itself as a role model for democracy and freedom.
- They thought the way of spreading this idea was to settle the entire continent.
- A newspaper editor, John O'Sullivan, said "It was America's Manifest Destiny to overspread and to posses the whole continent which Providence has given us."
Fifty-Four Forty or Fight
- Many Americans wanted all of Oregon.
- James Polk supported this desire.
- The democrats used the slogan "Fifty-Four Forty or Fight" referring to the line of latitude they believed should be the nations northern border for Oregon.
How did Polk’s views differ from Clay’s in the 1844 election?
Henry clay did not take a strong stance on the whole Oregon issue, but Polk really supported the idea of taking Oregon.
Statehood for Florida and Texas
How did Florida become a state?
Spain transferred Florida over to the U.S. on July 17, 1821
- Tallahassee became Florida's territorial capital in 1824.
- Not counting Native Americans fewer than 8,000 people lived in Florida.
- Many plantation farmers moved from Georgia and Virginia to Florida for the new fresh soil.
The Territory Grows
- In 1837 there were 48,000 people in Florida.
- Congress made Florida wait six years until it could be a state because they didn't want to many slave states.
Statehood for Florida
- Iowa popped up as the next free state candidate so Florida finally became a state on March 3, 1845.
What caused the population of Florida to grow?
A lot of the people in Florida were slave the rest came from other slave states because the soil had been over farmed so Florida was perfect for plantations.
- In 1821 Mexico won independence from Spain.
- The non-Native American population of Texas was about 3,000.
- Most were Tejanos or Mexicans who claimed Texas as their home.
- The Texans only had about 180 soldiers to take on Santa Anna's army of several thousand.
- They suffered 13 long days of attack and were able to keep off Santa Anna's army at bay with only rifle fire.
- Until march 6 when cannons started smashing down the walls and they all died.
Texas Declares Its Independence
- On March 2, 1836 Texas declared independence from Mexico.
- They became the Republic of Texas.
The Lone Star Republic
- The Republic of Texas wanted to U.S. to annex them.
- The U.S. wouldn't because they didn't want another slave state.
Texas Becomes a State
- It took a dumb amount of time to annex Texas.
- This was because the government was really split on whether they should let another slave state in.
Why did it take so long for the United States to annex Texas?
The first issue was that the current president didn't want to bring a new slave state in and then after a new president came in the Senate was divided on whether Texas should join but finally Texas did get in.
War With Mexico
How did the Santa Fe Trail benefit the New Mexico Territory?
It was a lot better than the other trails at the time so people started trading and moving there.
The New Mexico Territory
- The New Mexico Territory was a vast amount of land between Texas and California.
- New Mexico won independence from Spain in 1821.
- William Becknell was the first american trader to reach Santa Fe.
How did William Becknell influence the American settlement of New Mexico?
It made a lot of other Americans go to Santa Fe.
California's Spanish Culture
- Spanish explorers and missionaries from Mexico settled California in the 1700s.
- Mexican bought mission lands and set up huge ranches, or RANCHOS!!!!
- President James K. Polk was determined to get New Mexico and California from Mexico.
- Relations between the two nations were not good.
- On April 25, 1846, Mexican troops attacked Taylor's.
A War Plan
- Polk was really greedy so he first wanted to drive Mexican forces out of Texas then take New Mexico and California.
- Finally they would go into Mexico and take their capital.
- Even before war with Mexico officially began, American settlers in northern California were already starting to rebel against Mexico.
- California became the BEAR flag republic.
- Mexico was defeated on February 2, 1848, Mexican leaders signed the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
- Mexico gave America over 500,000 square miles of land.
What did America gain from the Mexican War?
They gained the New Mexico Territory and California.
How did the discovery of gold help California?
Once gold was discovered many people rushed over and California boomed with towns and cities.
California Gold Rush
- Gold was discovered in 1848 at Sutter's Mill people from all around the world came to get gold.
- American made up about 80% of all the people who came.
- Californios are Mexicans who became Americans when America took California.
The Life of a Forty-Niner
- As ships arrived in California with many people in 1849 San Fransisco became a boomtown.
- Most forty-niners had no experiance in mining.
Gold Rush Society
- There were no cops so people became vigilantes and took justice into their own hands.
Economic and Political Progress
- Rapid growth brought the need for better government so california applied for statehood in 1849 and wrote a constitution.