On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther nailed his “Ninety-Five Theses” in Wittenberg, Germany on the door of the Castle Church. These written theses were a list of proclamations that conveyed and demonstrated Luther’s concern regarding the practices that took place within the church and the corruption that was happening.
During the Protestant Reformation there were many different beliefs that were spreading among eastern Europe. There were many different peoples ideas and belief that came in to play and played an important role throughout this time period.
Luther during the Reformation was important because he was the one who basically stopped the corruption in the church. He disagreed with the ideas of indulgences and because of that he creates this 95 these which is is 95 arguments against indulgences of the church.
Diet of Worms
The Diet of worms was a result to Luther's 95 these. At that time Charles V was the Holy Roman Emperor, where he gathered a council in the city of Vorms in Germany. Charles V summoned Luther and giving him the option of a safe passage and wont be arrested if he testifies in front of the council.
Zwingli's ideas were very similar to those of Luther. He looked to scripture as the sole authority, not the church. He differed from Luther in Eucharist, Luther believed flesh + blood of Christ presents in the bread + wine, and Zwingli believed Flesh + blood of Christ symbolized by the bread + wine. He also believed in Anabaptism- which was that baptism must not take place in infancy, but later in life as a conscientious faith.
Calvin also played an important role during the Reformation. He believed in the doctrine of predestination- Which was the idea that the elect is chosen by God and an individual's actions do not determine ones will, and that God choses who will go to heaven even before they are born. He wrote the Institutes of Christian Religion where he combines scripture and logic.
Wycliffe was important because he translated the Bible into english which what we now as the King James version of the Bible. It was important for the Bible to be translated so people were able to read the Bible themselves instead of relying on others. The importance for others to read the Bible themselves were because of the fact that there were so many churches and popes around Europe and there were so many people that could not read, what the pope said, the common people would believe. The danger of that is that the some popes would interpret the Bible wrong and if they interpreted it wrong for themselves the message coming from the pope would be wrong to the common individual.
English scholar who became a leading figure in Protestant reform in the years leading up to his execution. He is well known for his translation of the Bible into English.
Max Weber was a German sociologist and political economist who is best known for his theory of the development of Western capitalism that is based on the "Protestant Ethic." In addition, Weber wrote widely on law and religion, including groundbreaking work on the importance of bureaucracy in modern society.
the most important 15th-century Czech religious Reformer, whose work was transitional between the medieval and the Reformation periods and anticipated the Lutheran Reformation by a full century. He was embroiled in the bitter controversy of the Western Schism (1378–1417) for his entire career, and he was convicted of heresy at the Council of Constance and burned at the stake.
Iconoclasm was the destruction or removal of statues and painting from churches. The reason that some of these arts were destroyed by there donors were because they represent religiously that which they now reject as unbiblical. But iconoclasm was not just a bad thing because it created a new style of art called baroque.
Art in the beginning of the reformation began to take a wrong turn and began to look similar to the Renaissance, but throughout the Reformation we see the change in art from a secular view to a more Biblical view.
- Rembrandt: Dutch Baroque painter and printmaker, one of the greatest storytellers in the history of art. Rembrandt is also known as a painter of light and shade and as an artist who favored an uncompromising realism that would lead some critics to claim that he preferred ugliness to beauty. He also liked to paint himself in to some of his arts.
- Albrecht Durer: Painter, printmaker, and theorist of the German Renaissance. He also established his reputation and influence across Europe when he was still in his twenties, due to his high-quality woodcut prints
- Bernini: Italian artist who was perhaps the greatest sculptor of the 17th century and an outstanding architect as well. Bernini created the Baroque style of sculpture and developed it to such an extent that other artists are of only minor importance in a discussion of that style.
- Peter Paul Reubens: Flemish/Netherlandish draughtsman and painter. He is widely considered as the most notable artist of Flemish Baroque art school.
- Lucas Cranach the Elder: German renaissance painter and printmaker in woodcarving and engraving. He was court painter to the Electors of Saxony for most of his career, and is known for his portraits, both of German princes and those of the leaders of the Protestant Reformation, whose because he embraced with enthusiasm, becoming a close friend of Martin Luther. He also painted religious subjects, first in the Catholic tradition, and later trying to find new ways of conveying Lutheran religious concerns in art.
- El Greco/The Burial of Count Orgaz: painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance.