Mitosis and Meiosis Kassidy King

Mitosis and Meiosis

Both mitosis and meiosis are associated with cytokinesis. The end result of both are daughter cells produced from a parent cell. Both include the breakdown of the nuclear membrane, the separation of genetic material into two groups, which is followed by cell division and the reformation of the nuclear membrane in each cells. Meiosis has two different rounds of genetic separation and cellular division while mitosis only has one. In meiosis the daughter cells are not genetically identical. In mitosis the daughter cells are identical.

Define:

~Nondisjunction: the failure of one or more pairs of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate during nuclear division.

~Recessive Genes: A gene that is phenotypically expressed in the homozygous state.

~Dominant Genes: A gene that is expressed phenotypically in heterozygous or homozygous individuals.

~Somatic Cells: One of the cells that take part in the formation of the body, becoming differentiated into the various tissues, organs, etc.

~Germ Cells: The sexual reproductive cell at any stage from the primordial cell to the mature gamete.

Karyotype/Genotype/Phenotype

Karyotype is the visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or specie. If you change your genotype it will change your phenotype because your phenotype is your physical feature and your genotype is your genes.

Klinefelter's Syndrome

Klinefelter's syndrome is a chromosomal condition that affects male physical and cognitive development. Affected individuals usually have small testes that do not produce as much testosterone as usual. Testosterone is the hormone that directs male sexual development before birth and during puberty. A shortage of testosterone can lead to delayed or incomplete puberty, breast enlargement, and reduced facial and body hair. Some affected individuals also have genital differences including undescended testes, the opening of the urethra on the underside of the penis, or an unusually small penis. Older people with Klinefelter syndrome tend to be taller than most people. Children with Klinefelter syndrome usually have learning disabilities and delayed speech and language development. Klinefelter's syndrome is a germ cell. It is neither dominant or recessive.

Down Syndrome

Down syndrome is a germ cell, it is neither dominant or recessive. Down syndrome occurs when a individual has a extra cope of chromosome 21. It is called trisomy 21. Down syndrome is usually caused by an error in cell division called "nondisjunction." Nondisjunction results in an embryo with three copies of chromosome 21 instead of two. As the embryo develops, the extra chromosome is replicated into every cell of the body.

Colorblindness

Some people, have a color vision deficiency, which means their perception of colors is different from what most of us see. The most severe forms of these deficiencies are referred to as color blindness. People with color blindness aren’t aware of different colors that are obvious to the rest of us. People who don’t have the more severe types of color blindness may not be aware of their condition unless they’re tested in a clinic or laboratory. These color-detecting molecules are located in the cone-shaped cells within the retina, which are called cone cells. Red-green color blindness is the most common. Colorblindness is a germ cell. Red-green colorblindness is a sex-linked recessive trait and blue-yellow colorblindness is a autosomal dominant trait.

Turner's Disease

Turner's disease is a somatic cell. Turner's disease is neither dominant or recessive. Turner syndrome affects development in females. The most common feature of Turner syndrome is short stature, which happens by about age 5. An early loss of ovarian function is very common. The ovaries develop normally at first, but egg cells usually die prematurely and most ovarian tissue degenerates before birth. Many affected girls do not undergo puberty unless they receive hormone therapy, and most of them are unable to conceive. A small percentage of females with Turner syndrome retain normal ovarian function through their young adulthood.

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