Mount Kilimanjaro Mountain Biome

Climate of Mount Kilimanjaro

The temperature on Mount Kilimanjaro ranges from hot to bitter cold. Towards the bottom of the mountain the temperatures are usually in the mid to high 60-70s. Towards the middle of the mountain the temperature stays in the low 50s and as you go higher up the mountain the temperature goes lower and lower. Minimum temperature: 0 degrees Maximum temperature: 23 degrees (keep in mind these temperatures differ when your on different parts of the mountain)

The rainfall on Mount Kilimanjaro varies depending on the time of year and the altitude. April and May are the wettest months and August and September are the driest months. This is towards the bottom of the mountain. The higher up you go on the mountain, the more likely it is for there to be snow and ice. Minimum precipitation: less than 10 mm Maximum precipitation: between 10 and 20 mm (keep in mind that these numbers may differ when your on different parts of the mountain).

Net Primary Activity

The Mountain biome is different from other biomes because there are different biomes within it. Towards the bottom of the mountain there are forests, sometimes tropical rain forests and sometimes other kinds, it depends on where the mountain is. Whereas towards the top of the mountain, it is more Polar Tundra, with little life and very cold temperatures. In the middle of the mountain, it is somewhere in the middle of the two, not cold enough for there to be little to no life, and not to warm. Other biomes do not have this, there is usually only one ecosystem and it doesn't change a lot, whereas the mountains do.

Soil Quality

There are three volcanoes around the mountain, all have not erupted recently, the last erupting about a century ago. This makes the soil and land on the slopes of those volcanoes more fertile than most of the soil and land around the mountain itself.

Invasive Species

An invasive species on Mount Kilimanjaro is humans. People have built trails and villages, have polluted around and on the mountain etc. These kinds of things ruin the ecosystem, even in the slightest way. Humans being an invasive species was an accident because the population grew so much in so little time that they had to find places to live.

Endangered Species

An endangered species on Mount Kilimanjaro is the Zanzibar Red Colobus Monkey. This monkey can be found at the bottom of the mountain in the forests. Using HIPPCO, this monkey is endangered because of H, habitat destruction. Their habitat is being destroyed by humans, making room for the new trails and housing/villages, deforestation is a huge problem. Another reason is the I, invasive species, the humans. And lastly, this species is known to the locals as bad luck, if people see them on their farms or near their homes, they are likely to be killed. This in a way represents the O in HIPPCO, overharvesting.

Common Animals on Mount Kilimanjaro

The Blue Monkey

The Blue Monkey is one of the more common species on Mount Kilimanjaro. They spend most of their time in the trees and eating from the highest branches. Their long tail helps them balance when jumping from tree to tree and also helps them hang on to the branches when trying to reach food.

The Four Striped Grass Mouse

The Four Stripped Grass Mouse spends most of their time on the forest floor, scavenging for nuts or seeds that have fallen from above. Their long tails help them balance while running fast. Their large ears are key to survival because they can hear predators coming from at thirty feet away. Their long whiskers also help them sense where they are on the ground in places that they can't see.

The Bush Pig

The Bush Pig is a very common animal on Mount Kilimanjaro. Their feet and toes help them dig up small insects and grubs from deep in the ground. Not only that but their large snouts help them sniff around for the best food as well as helping them find the best places to dig. Their large ears help them hear the smallest of things as well.

Common Plants on Mount Kilimanjaro

The Fireball Lily

The fireball lily can survive even the driest conditions. This means that if there is a massive decrease in rainfall in a specific area the plant will still thrive. These plants can also survive in almost all temperatures above freezing and thrive in shady habitats.

helichrysum meyeri johannis

This plant can live in cold and warm conditions but usually only blooms fully when it is above freezing, though there is some exceptions. This plant thrives in sunlight but has also adapted to surviving in shadier areas. This plant has been found all around and on Mount Kilimanjaro.

Giant Fern

Ferns have very thick roots that bury deep underground to support the plant even in the hardest conditions. These roots also contain and protect the plant tissues that are responsible for moving nutrients around the plant, as well as store energy. This makes the ferns protected by most severe weather and even forest fires.


Created with images by Kyle Taylor, Dream It. Do It. - "Climbing Mount Kilimanjaro 2014 - 245" • Stig Nygaard - "Kilimanjaro" • dan80i - "red colobus monkey monkey profile" • JRWhitaker1 - "Blue Monkey (Cercopithecus mitis)" • PollyDot - "red river hog potamochoerus porcus bush pig" • sarangib - "lily scadoxus multiflorus fireball lily" • B A Bowen Photography - "Giant Leather Leaf Ferns"

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