Unit 5: The American Civil War and Reconstruction Vocabulary menu entree

Sectionalism - Excessive devotion to the interests of a particular region

Sectionalism relates to history because it played a major part in The Civil War. This was a war between The North, which included industrial buildings and the south.

Republican Party - the younger of two major political parties in the United States; GOP is an acronym for grand old part

Abraham Lincoln was a Republican, and they played a huge role in getting rid of slavery, during both the war and reconstruction.

Secession - Formal separation from an alliance or federation

Secession from the Southern states led to the establishment of the Confederacy. This then led to the Civil War. It is also noted as the most important secession in United States history.

Confederate States of America - the southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861

Made due to the secession. Was the government of the Southern States during the Civil War.

Emancipation - freeing someone from the control of another

Abraham Lincoln declared that all slaves in the southern states were free. This was declared in the Emancipation Proclamation.

Habeas Corpus - a writ ordering a prisoner to be brought before a judge

Abraham Lincoln decided to make Habeas Corpus null and void, because that it assisted in stopping the war.

Reconstruction - the activity of building something again

The Reconstruction happened after the war, and it is more of a political war between the North and South. African-American people were given a status and the right to vote, and this greatly backfired.

Impeachment - a formal document charging a public official with misconduct

The U.S. House of Representatives impeached President Andrew Johnson, this was due to his Tenure of Office Act.

Ku Klux Klan - a secret society of white Southerners in the United States

A group of white Southerners who mimicked slave patrollers, except they were extremist. This group was started about a decade after The Reconstruction and was a tool to force free men back into plantations.

Poll Tax - a tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote

Poll Taxes were a fee needed to vote. They were set up by southern states to suppress African-American voting.

Segregation - the act of keeping apart

Segregation was present before the Civil War, but eased up after the war. This by no means made life peachy for African-Americans due to the White Supremacist roaming around.

Capitalist - of an economic system based on private ownership

Capitalist were dependent on the market of slave trade and the things they would harvest, so when slaves were being emancipated this greatly affected their trade.

Siege - an action of an armed force that surrounds a fortified place

There were many sieges in the Civil War, but the first was the Battle of Fort Sumter. Fort Sumter was a fort in the South, and was the last trace of North there. When the North attempted to send supplies to the Fort, the South attacked it. The last siege was The Siege of Vicksburg.

Emancipate - free from slavery or servitude

Abraham Lincoln sought to emancipate the slaves.

Inflation - a general and progressive increase in prices

Inflation was a huge problem during the Civil War. This was due to the money being lost. The North took a bigger hit than the South. The South had about 1/3 of the wealth of the United States.

Draft - compulsory military service

On March 3, 1863, the army needed more manpower. In order to this, the government passed The Enrollment Act, 12 Stat. 731. This followed in a riot.

Martial Law - the body of law imposed by the military over civilian affairs (usually in time of war or civil crisis); overrides civil law

Martial Law was put in place, due to their being a chance that terrorist could strike and action would need to be taken quickly.

Famine - a severe shortage of food resulting in starvation and death

The South was basically starved out of the war. They were not able to provide the food after North naval fleets cut off the food they were getting.

Urbanization - the social process whereby cities grow

A large scale event in the late 1800s, until the early 1900s. This was very popular in New York.

Telegraph - apparatus used to communicate at a distance over a wire

This device allowed operational, tactical, and strategic communication. It could be used an apparatus to transfer messages over a long distance.

Ironclad - a wooden warship of the 19th century plated with armor

The first use of Ironclads were actually during the Civil War. They were made to be able to deflect enemy shots and be untouchable to infantry.

Discrimination - unfair treatment of a person or group based on prejudice

Most African American soldiers for the Confederate Army were used for slave labor. The Black soldiers were payed less. They were also trained by White Officers and they failed to train their soldiers sometimes.

Casualty - someone injured or killed in an accident

A minimum of 618,000 Americans were slain during the Civil War.

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