Efforts to reform America, such as the Secod Great Awakening, which was a revival of religious belief and feeling in the 1820-30s, transcendentalism and so on, emphasized the role that individuals played in their own societies.
Mid 1800s ; many Americans, both black and white, began to speak out against slavery. The movement began in response of the inhumane treatment of slaves. Although slavery in the North no longer went on, they accepted the fact that Southerners still had slaves. Many ran the Underground Railroad, a secret system in which other people and former slaves saved enslaved people.
Most of the time, women were not allowed to do anything, such as speak at a convention because they were women. Women could not vote, hold office and any wages they earned belonged to their husbands. Women's Rights activists, such as Susan B. Anthony, caused such a great amount of protests and reforms, caused states to pass laws protecting their rights. https://www.aclu.org/issues/womens-rights
When Dorothea Dix discovered the maltreatment of prisoners and even mentally ill patients locked in cages and small cells with children, she was appalled. Dix issued a report to the legislature of the state highlighting the heartless and horrible conditions and treatments. The lawmakers, soon after, voted to create mental hospitals and outlawed cruel punishment. They also created better justice systems for children.
The temperance reform was a campaign against the consumption and sale of any alcohol. The campaign was started because alcohol abuse was widespread amongst men, women, and said even CHILDREN. States, such as Maine banned the sale of alcohol. The bans were repealed, but they'd come back around in the late 1800s.