Johannes Vermeer The Milkmaid

Born Baptized 31 October 1632, Delft, Dutch Republic,Died buried 15 December 1675 (aged 43), Delft, Dutch Republic, Spouse: Catharina Bolnes (m. 1653–1675), Children: Maria 1654 - after 1713, Elisabeth 1657 - before 1713, Cornelia, Aleydis died. 1749, Beatrix, Johannes born 1663, Gertruyd died after 1713, Franciscus 1664 - after 1708, Catharina died after 1713, Ignatius 1672 - died after 1713, a child 1674 - 1678

Periods: Baroque, Dutch Golden Age, Nationality Dutch, Education Carel Fabritius, Known for Painting

He specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle class life. After his death he left his wife in children with a huge debt due to him producing relatively few artworks. HE is said to have made 66 pictures but only 34 of them are given to him.

One aspect of his meticulous painting technique was Vermeer's choice of pigments.He is best known for his frequent use of the very expensive ultramarine (The Milkmaid), and also lead-tin-yellow (A Lady Writing a Letter), madder lake (Christ in the House of Martha and Mary), and vermilion. He also painted with ochres, bone black and azurite. The claim that he utilized Indian yellow in Woman Holding a Balance[33] has been disproven by later pigment analysis.

In Vermeer’s oeuvre, only about 20 pigments have been detected. Of these 20 pigments, seven principle pigments which Vermeer commonly employed include lead white, yellow ochre, vermilion, madder lake, green earth, raw umber, and ivory or bone black.

Vermeer's works were largely overlooked by art historians for two centuries after his death. A select number of connoisseurs in the Netherlands did appreciate his work, yet even so many of his works were attributed to better-known artists such as Metsu or Mieris. The Delft master's modern rediscovery began about 1860, when German museum director Gustav Waagen saw The Art of Painting in the Czernin gallery in Vienna and recognized the work as a Vermeer, though it was attributed to Pieter de Hooch at that time.Research by Théophile Thoré-Bürger culminated in the publication of his catalogue raisonné of Vermeer's works in the Gazette des Beaux-Arts in 1866. Thoré-Bürger's catalogue drew international attention to Vermeer and listed more than 70 works by him, including many that he regarded as uncertain. The accepted number of Vermeer's paintings today is 34.

pon the rediscovery of Vermeer's work, several prominent Dutch artists modelled their style on his work, including Simon Duiker. Other artists who were inspired by Vermeer include Danish painter Wilhelm Hammershoi and American Thomas Wilmer Dewing. In the 20th century, Vermeer's admirers included Salvador Dalí, who painted his own version of The Lacemaker (on commission from collector Robert Lehman) and pitted large copies of the original against a rhinoceros in some surrealist experiments. Dali also immortalized the Dutch Master in The Ghost of Vermeer of Delft Which Can Be Used As a Table, 1934.

Han van Meegeren was a 20th-century Dutch painter who worked in the classical tradition. He became a master forger, motivated by a blend of aesthetic and financial reasons, creating and selling many new "Vermeers" before being caught and tried.

On the evening of 23 September 1971, a 21-year-old hotel waiter, Mario Pierre Roymans, stole Vermeer's Love Letter from the Fine Arts Palace in Brussels where it was on loan from the Rijksmuseum as a part of the Rembrandt and his Age exhibition

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