Explain: Freud’s personality theory that attributed thoughts/actions to unconscious motives and conflicts.
Major Focus: Freud and Jung focused on the unconscious mind.
Major Theorists: Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung
Background of Theorists: Freud was originally a physician. He was close to his mother and his daughter. He smoked cigars. Fred committed suicide. He observed that some of his patients had physical illnesses without an obvious physical cause, so the illnesses must be a psychological cause. He believed that that the unconscious mind was the cause of illnesses in his patients. Freud also created Freud's Model of the Mind. Jung was a psychiatrist. He believed personality was shaped by all of the experiences of past generations extending back to into a shared evolutionary past (collective unconscious). He didn't agree with Freud on his statement that personality resulted from childhood sexual conflicts.
- (Freud) Id: strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive tendencies
- (Freud) Ego: mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality
- (Freud) Superego: internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment
- (Jung) Collective Unconscious: A "ware house" of ancestral memories from our past as a group and made up by archetypes.
- (Jung) Archetypes: common themes found in all religions, cultures, and literature that predispose all personalities
- (Freud) Psychosexual Stages: Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital
- (Freud) Defense Mechanisms: Displacement, Rationalization, Reaction Formation, Regression, Repression, Denial, Projection, Sublimation
How this relates to Kanye: According to Freud, Kanye could have had went through a sexual conflict when he was younger, resulting in his lashing out. According to Jung, there could be something in Kanye's collective unconscious that Kanye is not aware of causing him to lash out.
Explain: Emphasizes goodness of people and the ways that they try to achieve self-actualization
Major Focus: Personality results from trying to achieve self-actualization and from self-concepts.
Major Theorist: Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
Background of Theorist: Maslow was an American psychologist who believed we are all born good and move toward self-actualization. Carl Rogers was an American psychologist who believed we are all born with the need for unconditional positive regard.
- (Maslow) self-actualization - the process of fulfilling our potential
- (Rogers)self-concept: organized, consistent set of beliefs and perceptions about ourselves, develops in response to life events
- (Rogers)unconditional positive regard – acceptance and love from others AND ourselves regardless of how we have behaved
- (Rogers)Ideal self – who you want to be
- (Rogers)Real self – who you actually are
- (Rogers)Congruence – real self and ideal self match → positive self-concept
- (Rogers)Incongruence – disparity between real self and ideal self → negative self-concept
How this relates to Kanye: According to Maslow, Kanye could be acting out because he was born to fulfill his potential. According to Rogers, Kanye could be acting out because he was born to have acceptance and love from others and from himself.
Explain: stable and enduring pattern of behaving/thinking
Major Focus: Personality is the result of stable and enduring traits.
Major Theorists: Allport’s and Eysenck’s
Background of Theorists: Allport believes in 3 trait levels (4,000 traits). Eysenck believes in 3 dimensions.
- Temperament (emotional reactivity) is in some part biologically determined.
- Personality inventories – long questionnaires covering a wide range of feelings and behaviors
- Cardinal trait – defining characteristic
- Central traits – 5-10 general traits
- Secondary traits – show up only in certain situations
How this relates to Kanye: Kanye's demanding and outgoing personality could be causing his outbursts.
Behavioral & Social Cognitive
Theorist: Albert Bandura
Background of Theorists: Bandura is a psychologist who believes personality is the result of the interaction between a person’s characteristics,, behaviors, and environment.
Bandura’s Reciprocal Determinism:
- Reciprocal determinism - the interaction between an individual’s characteristics, behavior, and the environment.
- They all feed off of and influence each other