SELL AND SPIN DOCUMENTARY - A HISTORY OF ADVERTISING.
- grabbing attention + selling the product to those who can afford.
- creating desire + tapping into a need.
- uses images + words to 'delight the eyeballs' and motivate viewer to consume action.
- creates illusion it is directed solely at the individual viewer.
- the average person would see 3,000 ads daily (over 20 years ago).
- $450 on US worldwide annual spend on advertising.
- the second most recognised word in the world is 'coca cola'.
- humans/consumers make more of a connection with the brand mascot rather than the product.
- products sell better when it is made out like a human, someone the consumer can connect with.
- Leo Burnett > created personalities as products, e.g Tony the Tiger, Solly Green Giant, Marlboro Man case study.
- cigarettes started off being advertised towards women, until the sales began to go down so the companies/brands had to focus on both genders to make profit.
- iconography = a visual shorthand (an icon that represents something else), e.g Maryln Monroe represented glamour and the hollywood era.
- the biggest product sales of all time were the Ford Edsel - the advertising might of been great and a lot of money may have been put into it but that doesn't mean people would purchase it.
- some of the first advertisements are found on the walls (painted) of Pompeii (there were also town criers).
- the Gutenberg printing press is the beginning of mass media (allows you to create text and image) 1488 - middle ages. Increased in literary + increase in consumer culture.
- the first great subject of advertising were books. promotion of books.
- competitors used to tore down someone else's ads.
Female representation in advertising
Killing us Softly 4 - video
- What are the links with women, objectification, pornography, adn the pressure faced by young women via socail media.
- How are men encourages to view men and how are women encouraged to view themselves>
glossarymedia saturation - when we are bombarded with adverts...3,000 a day, that was over 20 years ago.
- media saturation - when we are bombarded with adverts. 3,000 ads are seen a day, this was over 20 years ago.
- branding - what a product represents (lifestyle, personality, identity, values, qualities and looks).
- objectification - the seeing and/or treating a person, usually a woman, as an object. In the representation of women, this is often sexual objectification.
- gender roles - for women roles are often limited to housewife or sex object. For men, roles are often represented as the breadwinner and being served by women.
- dismemberment - cropping and fragmentation of the female body in media images which encourages objectification and humanisation. Often this is the legs or parts of the torso.
Design a test for assessing the objectification of women in advertising, which is similar to the Rep Test for film and TV. Some of the questions from the original version can be used without changing, others can be adapted. You will also need to come up with some questions of your own that make use of your learning in class today on objectification, dismemberment, gender roles, etc.
Male Representation in Adevertising
Metrosexual - A neologism (a made up word) to represent a changing economic trend in male shopping and representation dating from the 80s. A man who is attracted to women sexually, but who is also interested in fashion and his appearance.
Spornosexual - A neologism (a made up word with sport + porn + metrosexual).
Lumber-sexual - A lumber-sexual or urban lumberjack is a man who has adopted style traits typical of a lumberjack, namely a beard, plaid shirt, and scruffy hair, substituting otherwise clean-cut and fashionable style choices.
In the image above they use a black and white filter to give the male physique and features a more defined and desired look. It gives depth and darkening to areas that need it and brightens the areas that don't. This is a mid-shot. The photo focuses on his physique and his lower crotch area. It gives me a clean and chill feeling as if when buying A&F products it will make you feel just normal and chill and good.
Aryan Propaganda: a representation of race ideal. (face shape, blue eyes, blonde hair, certain physique).
- How did he attract an audience?
- Why specifically his Volkswagen campaign so commonly cited as an example of outstanding advertising?
Rosser Reeves 'the hard sell'.
- 'unique selling proposition' (USP) = reason why.
- how is product different from others in the market?
- repeat endlessly to increase retention.
- His work for Volkswagen was named the best advertising ever.
- He encouraged America to 'think small'.
- used humour to connect with viewer.
Advertising regulation refers to the laws and rules defining the ways in which products can be advertised in a particular region. Rules can define a wide number of different aspects, such as placement, timing, and content. In the United States, false advertising and health-related ads are regulated the most. Two of the most highly regulated forms of advertising are tobacco advertising and alcohol advertising. (Wikipedia)
Craven 'A' Advertisement
- What is this advertising? - cigarettes
- What claims are being made for the product? - that if you smoke their cigarettes it will be better for your throat rather than another brands.
- What image are they portraying? -
- Could the company make the same claims today? Why or Why not? - no they couldn't, because they 'good for your throat' remark is a lie and people now know that. People know that cigarettes are very bad for you so if the company were to say its good then it would probably backfire.
- What is this advertising? - chocolate
- What claims are being made for the product? - that if you eat their chocolate it'll make you slim.
- What image are they portraying?
- Could the company make the same claims today? Why or Why not? - No, because people now know that chocolate can now fatten you and that it isn't especially healthy.
1. Identify the groups of people who appear to be most vulnerable to advertising. That is, who are the regulators trying to protect? - younger audiences, mainly with social media. easily influenced people usually of a younger age.
2. Adverts for which products are most strictly regulated? Why do you think this is? - cigarettes, alcohol. I think that foods should be more strictly regulated as they get given a lot of leniency with their adverts. I also think that guns should be more strictly regulated as people don't realise how harmful they can be, and if they are advertised in the wrong way people might not realise how harmful they can be.
3. In a group, discuss whether you think adverts need to be regulated. What harm might they do (if any)? - We thought that should be regulated. If an advert isn't regulated, then if it is violent it could influence people in the wrong way.
4. Create your own set of regulations - about 10 rules which you think should apply to advertisers.
- All gender genitals must be covered in a way that it cannot be seen.
- An advert should not encourage violence of any type/form.
- You must be able to prove the facts that you present within the advertisement.
- It should not degrade any group of people.
- If the advertisement is photoshopped or enhanced, somewhere within it you must state that it is.
- Smoking, drugs and alcohol should not be encouraged.
- The advertisement should not be exclusive to only one race, unless there is a good reason, for example; cultural appropriation.
- Nobody should be objectified in the advertisement, sexual objectification or not.
- You must state that the advertisement is either sponsored content or an advertisement.
- Whoever is in the advertisement must consent the broadcasting of the advert, as well as any photoshopping done.
5. Look at these (controversial) ads from the clothing company Benetton. Would they pass your set of regulations? Would you ban them? Be prepared to explain why or why not.
Film 1 -- Anna Winston -- Why was this film banned?
I think it was banned because it is creepy, morbid and could scare people. If this is shown to a younger generation, it could offend them and disturb them. It also wasn't stated that it would be some sort of 'scary' before being shown. It seems as though it could be perceived as encouraging violence.
Film 2 -- NF Promo -- Why was this film banned?
There was alcohol shown at the start of the advertisement, which is shown to a younger generation it could influence them to drink? The music could have concerned certain people as it could be said as dreary and 'scary'. The cards are seen to be gambling.
Film 3 -- Innovation Promo (Valentine's Day) -- Why was this film banned?
I think it received complaints/was banned because the main focuses were 2 girls, who were made to be lesbian. People felt uncomfortable watching two girls dance together 'in love' as apposed to a girl and a boy. It is still a tabou to be lesbian or gay.
Most Complained About Ads of 2015
- How many complaints were received? - 1,513 complaints
- What was the nature of the complaints (link to the advertising regulations)? - That they found the advert offensive, they also thought it was overtly sexualised.
- Was the ruling upheld or not upheld? - It was no upheld.
- What explanation was given to the ruling? - 'While acknowledging that some viewers might have found the ad distasteful, we did not judge the ad to be offensive and in breach of the Code.'
PayPal (UK) Ltd
- How many complaints were received? - 464 complaints
- What was the nature of the complaints (link to the advertising regulations)? - That it revealed the truth about Father Christmas.
- Was the ruling upheld or not upheld? - It was not upheld.
- What explanation was given to the ruling? - 'We did not uphold the complaints. Independently, Paypal changed the scheduling of its commercial.'
Omega Pharma Ltd
- How many complaints were received? - 136 complaints.
- What was the nature of the complaints (link to the advertising regulations)? -
- What is the problem that this campaign is seeking to address? - 'She Objects challenges consumers and content creators to think critically about the correlation between the media’s portrayal of women and and eating disorders and self-esteem issues for girls, violence against women and the erosion of female ambition.'
- How is the organisation trying to do this? - They are advertising their campaign, thoughts and ideas through the media. They have a film of which they are trying to have school show.
- How are the various films part of a wider campaign? - They have a trailer, a website, school appearances, a short film and a long film that includes interviews.
- Advertising Agencies Have Clients: what is the purpose of a pitch in the agency/client relationship? - The usual way an agency gets work is through a pitch. A pitch is an audition, with the client giving a brief to a number of advertising agencies, and choosing the one that best resolves the brief. Of course, it doesn’t always work that way (see The Pitch TV show), but for the most part, this is how agencies are paired with clients.
- Everything is Problem/Solution Driven: Explain who has the problem and who come up with a solution in a context of the agency/client relationship? - The ad agency is there to solve problems for its clients. The client is there to present the agency with its problems, and when it needs solutions.
- The Process of Creating Advertising Campaigns: Create a flowchart to represent the process involving the client, the account manager, the creative team and the creative director. -
Copywriter: a) the job involves; developing creative ideas, presenting those to the clients, casting actors, proof reading the script, etc. b) in last list c) academical thinking, spelling and grammar, etc.
Art Director: a) developing creative ideas, thinking visually, pitching your ideas well to clients, etc. b) as in the last list. c) creative and visual thinking, good at communicating, high levels of motivation, etc.
Account Planner: a) researching the product the clients are selling, finding strategies by analysing a range of information in great detail, etc. b) as in the last list. c) analytical skills, good thinker, numeracy, etc.
Account Executive: a) negotiating with clients, researching, 'making' pitches, etc. b) as in the last list. c) good oral and written communication skills, effective team-working skills, influencing and negotiation skills, very organised, etc.
I would like to be the Art Director, because I find the skills needed I can fulfil and the responsibilities that you have to take up, I would somewhat easily be able to do and have them. The Art Director sounds like a role that I would enjoy and would do well. For example; I would be able to communicate well with clients, the copywriter and anyone else that I would need to communicate with.
- What is the problem that this campaign is seeking to address? - The fact that men are told to hide their feelings, to not cry and to "man up". Men have to hide the way they feel, it has come to a point where men have began to commit suicide.
- How is the organisation trying to do this? - They are trying to spread the word and the hashtag all through social media, to gain awareness. They also had a TV Series which helped the campaign.
- How are the various films part of a wider campaign? - The fact that they had such a moving and powerful advertisement, made people (including myself) really think about how making men hide the way they feel, doesn't do anything but hurt them.
- What is the problem that this campaign is seeking to address? - The shaming of what people wear through social media and real life experiences.
- How is the organisation trying to do this? - We are making a hashtag and an advertisement video to spread awareness of this issue.
- How are the various films part of a wider campaign? -
Copyrights & wrongs
Fair Use : the ability to use a small amount of someone’s creative work without permission, but only in certain ways. Cannot be used for commercial purposes. Can only be used in certain ways:
- School work and Education.
- Criticism or social commentary.
- News reporting.
- Comedy or Parody.
Commercial purposes : a use in connection with a business, usually for profit.
Copyright : a given law that protects a creator’s ownership of and control over the work he or she creates, requiring other people to get the creator’s permission before they copy, share, or perform that work.
Creative commons : a kind of copyright that makes it easy for people to copy, share, and build on someone’s creative work – as long as they give the creator credit for it.
Public domain : creative work that’s not protected by copyright and is therefore free for one to use however one wants.
If I had created a piece of work , I would use a Creative Commons license because then it would save more time and stress on dealing with ever case and deciding whether I should allow them the use of my creative work or not. If they fall under the license then they can use it , and if they don't they must ask my personal opinion.