SELL AND SPIN DOCUMENTARY - A HISTORY OF ADVERTISING.
- grabbing attention + selling the product to those who can afford.
- creating desire + tapping into a need.
- uses images + words to 'delight the eyeballs' and motivate viewer to consume action.
- creates illusion it is directed solely at the individual viewer.
- the average person would see 3,000 ads daily (over 20 years ago).
- $450 on US worldwide annual spend on advertising.
- the second most recognised word in the world is 'coca cola'.
- humans/consumers make more of a connection with the brand mascot rather than the product.
- products sell better when it is made out like a human, someone the consumer can connect with.
- Leo Burnett > created personalities as products, e.g Tony the Tiger, Solly Green Giant, Marlboro Man case study.
- cigarettes started off being advertised towards women, until the sales began to go down so the companies/brands had to focus on both genders to make profit.
- iconography = a visual shorthand (an icon that represents something else), e.g Maryln Monroe represented glamour and the hollywood era.
- the biggest product sales of all time were the Ford Edsel - the advertising might of been great and a lot of money may have been put into it but that doesn't mean people would purchase it.
- some of the first advertisements are found on the walls (painted) of Pompeii (there were also town criers).
- the Gutenberg printing press is the beginning of mass media (allows you to create text and image) 1488 - middle ages. Increased in literary + increase in consumer culture.
- the first great subject of advertising were books. promotion of books.
- competitors used to tore down someone else's ads.
Female representation in advertising
Killing us Softly 4 - video
- What are the links with women, objectification, pornography, adn the pressure faced by young women via socail media.
- How are men encourages to view men and how are women encouraged to view themselves>
glossarymedia saturation - when we are bombarded with adverts...3,000 a day, that was over 20 years ago.
- media saturation - when we are bombarded with adverts. 3,000 ads are seen a day, this was over 20 years ago.
- branding - what a product represents (lifestyle, personality, identity, values, qualities and looks).
- objectification - the seeing and/or treating a person, usually a woman, as an object. In the representation of women, this is often sexual objectification.
- gender roles - for women roles are often limited to housewife or sex object. For men, roles are often represented as the breadwinner and being served by women.
- dismemberment - cropping and fragmentation of the female body in media images which encourages objectification and humanisation. Often this is the legs or parts of the torso.
Design a test for assessing the objectification of women in advertising, which is similar to the Rep Test for film and TV. Some of the questions from the original version can be used without changing, others can be adapted. You will also need to come up with some questions of your own that make use of your learning in class today on objectification, dismemberment, gender roles, etc.
Male Representation in Adevertising
Metrosexual - A neologism (a made up word) to represent a changing economic trend in male shopping and representation dating from the 80s. A man who is attracted to women sexually, but who is also interested in fashion and his appearance.
Spornosexual - A neologism (a made up word with sport + porn + metrosexual).
Lumber-sexual - A lumber-sexual or urban lumberjack is a man who has adopted style traits typical of a lumberjack, namely a beard, plaid shirt, and scruffy hair, substituting otherwise clean-cut and fashionable style choices.
In the image above they use a black and white filter to give the male physique and features a more defined and desired look. It gives depth and darkening to areas that need it and brightens the areas that don't. This is a mid-shot. The photo focuses on his physique and his lower crotch area. It gives me a clean and chill feeling as if when buying A&F products it will make you feel just normal and chill and good.
Aryan Propaganda: a representation of race ideal. (face shape, blue eyes, blonde hair, certain physique).
- How did he attract an audience?
- Why specifically his Volkswagen campaign so commonly cited as an example of outstanding advertising?
Rosser Reeves 'the hard sell'.
- 'unique selling proposition' (USP) = reason why.
- how is product different from others in the market?
- repeat endlessly to increase retention.
- His work for Volkswagen was named the best advertising ever.
- He encouraged America to 'think small'.
- used humour to connect with viewer.
Advertising regulation refers to the laws and rules defining the ways in which products can be advertised in a particular region. Rules can define a wide number of different aspects, such as placement, timing, and content. In the United States, false advertising and health-related ads are regulated the most. Two of the most highly regulated forms of advertising are tobacco advertising and alcohol advertising. (Wikipedia)
Craven 'A' Advertisement
- What is this advertising? - cigarettes
- What claims are being made for the product? - that if you smoke their cigarettes it will be better for your throat rather than another brands.
- What image are they portraying? -
- Could the company make the same claims today? Why or Why not? - no they couldn't, because they 'good for your throat' remark is a lie and people now know that. People know that cigarettes are very bad for you so if the company were to say its good then it would probably backfire.
- What is this advertising? - chocolate
- What claims are being made for the product? - that if you eat their chocolate it'll make you slim.
- What image are they portraying?
- Could the company make the same claims today? Why or Why not? - No, because people now know that chocolate can now fatten you and that it isn't especially healthy.
1. Identify the groups of people who appear to be most vulnerable to advertising. That is, who are the regulators trying to protect? - younger audiences, mainly with social media. easily influenced people usually of a younger age.
2. Adverts for which products are most strictly regulated? Why do you think this is? - cigarettes, alcohol. I think that foods should be more strictly regulated as they get given a lot of leniency with their adverts. I also think that guns should be more strictly regulated as people don't realise how harmful they can be, and if they are advertised in the wrong way people might not realise how harmful they can be.
3. In a group, discuss whether you think adverts need to be regulated. What harm might they do (if any)? - We thought that should be regulated. If an advert isn't regulated, then if it is violent it could influence people in the wrong way.
4. Create your own set of regulations - about 10 rules which you think should apply to advertisers.
- All gender genitals must be covered in a way that it cannot be seen.
- An advert should not encourage violence of any type/form.
- You must be able to prove the facts that you present within the advertisement.
- It should not degrade any group of people.
- If the advertisement is photoshopped or enhanced, somewhere within it you must state that it is.
5. Look at these (controversial) ads from the clothing company Benetton. Would they pass your set of regulations? Would you ban them? Be prepared to explain why or why not.