Biology: Chapter 29 By Charlie Cullen

Central Nervous System

  • the complex of nerve tissues that controls the activities of the body.
  • In vertebrates it comprises the brain and spinal cord.

Peripheral Nervous System

  • nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord

Somatic Nervous System

  • the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with skeletal muscle voluntary control of body movements.

Autonomic Nervous System

  • the part of the nervous system responsible for control of the bodily functions not consciously directed, such as breathing, the heartbeat, and digestive processes

Sensory Neuron

  • nerve cells within the nervous system responsible for converting external stimuli from the organism's environment into internal electrical impulses


  • A neuron that transmits impulses between other neurons, especially as part of a reflex arc.

Motor Neuron

  • a nerve cell (neuron) whose cell body is located in the spinal cord and whose fiber (axon) projects outside the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands

Neuromuscular Junction

  • a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber


  • Acetylcholine is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter

Norepinephrine and Epinephrine

  • It can treat low blood pressure and heart failure.


  • a junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a minute gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter

White Matter

  • is composed of bundles of myelinated nerve cell projections (or axons), which connect various gray matter areas (the locations of nerve cell bodies) of the brain to each other, and carry nerve impulses between neurons

Gray Matter

  • a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astroglia and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries

Cerebral Cortex

  • the outer layer of the cerebrum (the cerebral cortex ), composed of folded gray matter and playing an important role in consciousness

Limbic System

  • The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum

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