Higher Education Timeline- The Civil Rights Era The Evolution of Education

"Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world." - Nelson Mandela


The University of Michigan’s Affirmative Action program: The University underwent two challenges regarding the position of affirmative action for the admission into both the undergraduate program and Law School. The circuit court ruled that the undergraduate equal opportunity was constitutional; while that of the Law School’s was unconstitutional.


The Higher Education Opportunity Act: This act required public and private institutions to release institutional statistics to the Department of Education (DOE). This allowed for students to make more informed educational decisions. The DOE website was required to present: tuition, fees, price of attendance, statistics including sex, ethnic ratios as well as ACT/SAT scores.


A civil right lawsuit is filed with the U.S. Department of Justice and the Department of Education against the University of New Mexico. Charges stated the discrimination of African American students, faculty, and staff. These three demographics that make up less than half the population on campus. The suit alleged that this demographic was denied the professional growth opportunities, decline in retention/recruitment, hostile treatment for students and harsher disciplines.


Founded by: Alicia Garza, Patrisse Cullors, and Opal Tometi after the acquittal of George Zimmerman in the shooting death of Trayon Martin. Soon to be recognized nationally in the years to come, following the 2014 2016 deaths of numerous African Americans.

Black Lives Matter Movement- A modern day civil rights movement that has spread nationwide with its demand for justice. This movement has given a rebirth to the injustices in the U.S. and has had a big impact on Higher education. Students hold protests and rallies to help bring awareness to the wrongs of these acts of brutality.

During the Civil Right Era, education was one of the many topics that were defended by this movement. Throughout the years, while education evolved and broke barriers that were unspoken of before, the part of the Civil Rights evolved as well. This movement has taken on a new face in the twentieth century, one that is more active and visible to all. Social media has played a major role in doing so the last five years. While it is not recognized often, the Civil Rights movement has helped to pave the way for education to be equal for all Americans, and it is now this generation to continue the legacy.


Americans for a Fair Chance. (n.d). Opportunity through Affirmative Action. Retrieved April 18, 2017, from http://www.civilrights.org/equal-opportunity/fact-sheets/fact_sheet_packet.pdf

EdLabor Democrats. (2008, July 31). The Higher Education Opportunity Act Is Coming [video file].Retrieved from https://youtu.be/ii3FbmreQu0

Frosch, Dan. (2011). New Mexico Black Groups Claim Bias at University. Retrieved April 19, 2017, from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/23/us/bias-complaint-filed-against-university-of-new-mexico.html

McBride, Alex. (n.d). Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger (2003). Retrieved April 19, 2017, from http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/future/landmark_grutter.html

U.S. Department of Education. (n.d). Higher Education Opportunity Act- 2008. Retrieved April 20, 2014, from https://www2.ed.gov/policy/highered/leg/hea08/index.html

U.S. Department of Education. (n.d). Negotiated Rulemaking for Higher Education 2015-2016. Retrieved April 20, 2017 from https://www2.ed.gov/policy/highered/reg/hearulemaking/2016/index.html

Wilson, Jennifer (2015). How Black Lives Matter saved higher education. Retrieved April 19, 2017, from http://america.aljazeera.com/opinions/2015/12/how-black-lives-matter-saved-higher-education.html

Created By
Jasmin Rivers

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