Chp. 13 Vocab By Abby fink

Cold War: A state of political hostility

Iron Curtan: the notional barrier separating the former Soviet bloc and the West

Truman Doctrine: The principle that the US should give support to countries or peoples threatened by Soviet forces or Communist insurrection.

Marshall Plan: an American initiative to aid Western Europe

Berlin Airlift: U.S. and British pilots begin delivering food and supplies by airplane to Berlin after the city is isolated by a Soviet Union blockade

Containment policy: Containment was a United States policy using numerous strategies to prevent the spread of communism abroad

Mao Zedong: A founder of the Chinese Communist Party (1921), he commanded troops in the Chinese Civil War (1927-1949) and proclaimed the People's Republic of China in 1949.

Korean War: A war, also called the Korean conflict, fought in the early 1950s between the United Nations, supported by the United States, and the communist Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea)

Sputnik: a series of Soviet artificial satellites, the first of which (Launched: October 4, 1957) was the first satellite to be placed in orbit.

House Un-American Activities Committee: a committee (1938–75) of the U.S. House of Representatives, created to investigate disloyalty and subversive organizations.

Rosenberg Trials: A court case involving Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, an American couple who were executed in 1953 as spies for the Soviet Union.

Venona Papers: The following list of Americans in the Venona papers is a list of names deciphered from codenames contained in the Venona project, an American government effort from 1943-1980 to decrypt coded messages by intelligence forces of the Soviet Union.

"McCarthyism" : a vociferous campaign against alleged communists in the US government and other institutions carried out under Senator Joseph McCarthy in the period 1950–54

Jonas Salk: Vaccine against poliomyelitis named for Dr. Jonas Salk who developed and introduced it in 1955. It was the first type of polio vaccine to become available. It was made by cultivating three strains of the virus separately in monkey tissue

Civil Rights Movement: The civil rights movement was a struggle by African Americans in the mid-1950s to late 1960s to achieve Civil Rights equal to those of whites

Plessy v. Ferguson: a U.S. Supreme Court case from 1896 that upheld the rights of states to pass laws allowing or even requiring racial segregation in public and private institutions such as schools, public transportation, restrooms, and restaurants.

Brown v. Board of Education: was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.

Thurgood Marshall: was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving from October 1967 until October 1991. Marshall was the Court's 96th justice and its first African-American justice.

Martin Luther King, Jr.: an American civil rights activist and Baptist minister who first rose to prominence as leader of the Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott challenging segregated public transportation.

Rosa Parks: A black seamstress from Montgomery, Alabama, who, in 1955, refused to give up her seat on a Montgomery city bus to a white person, as she was legally required to do.

Orval Faubus: he Democratic Governor of Arkansas from 1955 to 1967, famously known for his vigorous stand against the desegregation of Little Rock Central High School in 1957.

Lester Maddox: was an American politician who served as the 75th Governor of the U.S. state of Georgia from 1967 to 1971.

George Wallace: an American politician and the 45th Governor of Alabama, having served two nonconsecutive terms and two consecutive terms as a Democrat: 1963–1967, 1971–1979 and 1983–1987.

Civil rights act: is a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

Affirmative Action: an action or policy favoring those who tend to suffer from discrimination, especially in relation to employment or education; positive discrimination.

Billy Graham: an American evangelical Christian evangelist, ordained as a Southern Baptist minister, who rose to celebrity status in 1949 reaching a core constituency of middle-class, moderately conservative Protestants.

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