Review Reena Cavin

Renaissance was in 15th and 16th century after the Dark Ages ushered in the modern era of secularism, rationalism, and individualism. The renaissance saw the rediscovery of Greek and Roman writings and their ideas. Renaissance artist were religious and Italy primed for Renaissance because of money. Fall of Constantinople in 1453 helped further Greeks ideas because Byzantine fled for Italy taking their books with them.

The Protestant Reformation was the 16th-century religious, political, intellectual and cultural upheaval that splintered Catholic Europe, setting in place the structures and beliefs that would define the continent in the modern era. In northern and central Europe, reformers like Martin Luther, John Calvin and Henry VIII challenged papal authority and questioned the Catholic Church’s ability to define Christian practice. They argued for a religious and political redistribution of power into the hands of Bible- and pamphlet-reading pastors and princes. The disruption triggered wars, persecutions and the so-called Counter-Reformation, the Catholic Church’s delayed but forceful response to the Protestants.

The age of exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century, during which European ships were traveled around the world to search for new trading routes and partners to feed burgeoning capitalism in Europe.

wars of religion were a series of religious wars waged in Europe from 1524 to 1648 The conflicts ended with the Peace of Westphalia recognizing three separate Christian traditions in the Holy Roman Empire: Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, and Calvinism, otherwise known as the Reformed tradition. The wars were strongly influenced by the religious change of the period and the conflict and rivalry that it produced. Nevertheless, the combatants cannot be neatly categorised by religion, nor were they divided by religion alone.

Age of Absolutism was when nobles must accept your authority and have the main part of the power. Large standing army was half of the budget of the state and tax people and control trade for money.There desire to be imperialistic and have an alliance with the established church.

The Scientific Revolution was a time of improvements and change for our ways of thinking and how our world was run. The discoveries made weren't usually trusted or believed until years or decades later. The time frame for the Scientific Revolution was between the lives of Nicholas Copernicus and Isaac Newton, even though people were still making discoveries afterwards. . There were advancements in chemistry, medicine, machinery, astronomy, and mathematics made during this time period. This time was also a push towards equality between men and women on intelligence. It didn't fully convince men that women were as smart as them, or capable of conducting experiments Scientists of this time weren't always as educated as they could have been, but their discoveries were proven to be true many times, and have become theories and laws. This time was defined greatly by the great people who lived and helped develop the world around them.

The French Revolution was a revolution in France from 1789 to 1799. It led to the end of the monarchy, and to many wars. King Louis XVI was executed in 1793. The revolution ended when Napoleon Bonaparte took power in November 1799. In 1804, he became Emperor.On 14 July 1789, the people decided to attack the Bastille prison. The Bastille contained weapons, as well as being a symbol of the power of the nobility and the rule of the king, the "Ancien Régime". By the afternoon, the people had broken into the Bastille and released the seven prisoners being held there.

The Napoleonic era begins roughly with Napoleon Bonaparte's coup d'état, overthrowing the Directory, establishing the French Consulate, and ends during the Hundred Days. The Congress of Vienna soon set out to restore Europe to pre-French Revolution days. Napoleon brought political stability to a land torn by revolution and war. He made peace with the Roman Catholic Church and reversed the most radical religious policies of the Convention. In 1804 Napoleon promulgated the Civil Code, a revised body of civil law, which also helped stabilize French society. The Civil Code affirmed the political and legal equality of all adult men and established a merit-based society in which individuals advanced in education and employment because of talent rather than birth or social standing. The Civil Code confirmed many of the moderate revolutionary policies of the National Assembly but retracted measures passed by the more radical Convention. The code restored patriarchal authority in the family, for example, by making women and children subservient to male heads of households.

The Industrial Revolution, which took place from the 18th to 19th centuries, was a period during , rural societies in Europe and America became industrial and urbanIndustrialization marked a shift to powered, special-purpose machinery, factories and mass production. The iron and textile industries, along with the development of the steam engine, played central roles in the Industrial Revolution, which also saw improved systems of transportation, communication and banking. While industrialization brought about an increased volume and variety of manufactured goods and an improved standard of living for some, it also resulted in often grim employment and living conditions for the poor and working classes.

Imperialism was the domination of another politically and people started to break away. European lost their grip and the main three Britain, France, Portugal.They thought it was right to expand and they wanted the easiest way to get there.The results of imperialism was the end slave trade, improved public safetyforced labor, divide and conflict between tribes.

European politics, philosophy, science and communications were reoriented during this time as part of a movement referred to by its participants as the Age of Reason, or theEnlightenment. Enlightenment thinkers in Britain, in France and throughout Europe questioned traditional authority and embraced the notion that humanity could be improved through rational change. The Enlightenment produced numerous books, essays, inventions, scientific discoveries, laws, wars and revolutions. The American and French Revolutions were directly inspired by Enlightenment ideals and respectively marked the peak of its influence and the beginning of its decline. The Enlightenment ultimately gave way to 19th-century Romanticism.

During the Age of revolution the main reason was for gold. God, and glory. The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. It marks a major turning point in history; almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way. In particular, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth.

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