OVERVIEW By: JAmie Minehart

Renaissance-15th and 16th century

Main Ideas of the Rennaissance was humanism-human achievements and potential

secularism-religious from non religious, Individualism-focus on a certain thing, Realism-picture more realistic than not, Naturalism-focus on nature, and Symbolism

Art was mainly visual but some literature pushing roman and greek culture

Ideas within the art pushing roman and greek culture


Rediscovery of greek and roman writing and ideas

New world for scholars(humanists) study literature, philosophy, history known as liberal arts

WHY ITALY?????????!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

MONEY to support artist, elaborate building projects, to feed scholars(translate and comment on 1000 year old document)

Italian city-states were wealthy because: Industrial powerhouse each on specializing in a particular product (cloth and arms), LOTS OF TRADE

RICHEST was the Phoenicians, HOW? trade with empires and ottomans

Trade of textiles colored by Alum

To make textiles Italians needed ottoman alum until 1460 when giovanni de castro discovered alum in Italy in Tufa

Pope Pius(giovanni de castro godfather) gave a monopoly on mining rights to the medici

Only impacted the people who could afford it, Richest

Important Artist

Michelangelo-Known for his painting of the “Creation of Adam” and “The Sistine Chapel” and his sculpture of “David” that was influenced by Lorenzo Medici

Raphael-Known for his painting of “The Schools of Athens”

Donatello-Known for his five foot sculpture of “David”

Leonardo da Vinci-known for his painting of “The Last Supper” and “Mona Lisa”, and his drawing of “Renaissance Man”

William Shakespeare-play writer known for "Romeo and Juliet", "Hamlet", "Julius Caesar"

Miguel de Cervantes- poet and play writer known for “Don Quixote”

Other Important people

Isabella d’Este-“First Lady of the Renaissance” Leader of Fashion

Christine de Pizan-one of the first to earn money as a writer and court writer for French Royal Court

Lorenzo de Medici-Known as “The Magnificent" he sponsored many Artist.


Catholic to different denominations of Christianity

Catholic church was in charge of European civilization

Catholic Church was the care taker of the soul

Priest married, baptized, heard confessions provided last rights of the people

The Church distributed alms to the poor, in charge of orphanages and provided educations

Church owned 1/3 of land in Europe

people normally only knew one person who could read the bible

Pope claimed authority over kings of Europe

The Reformation was started by Martin Luther

Luther was a lawyer but he did not like LAW

There was a storm causing Luther to almost die saying if he was saved he would become a monk. Within the next 2 weeks he withdrew from the university, join a monastery, took vowels, and sent a message telling his family

Luther was sent to Rome on a “diplomatic mission,

Luther focused on Rome corruption

Luther became to guilty because of his sins, he continually confessed, this caused his confessor to send him to the University of Wittenberg.

Luther eventually learn his answer by reading the Bible and understanding that the Way to God was based on an individual not on the pope.

Luther learned the wrong doings of the church such as selling of indulgences

he response was to write the 95 theses which he nailed to the church door

Later luther was put of Trail before Charles V to defend his accusations at the Diet of Worms

Charles thought Luther was wrong because of how long the Catholic church has been running things this way

But the ideas of martin luther spread because of the printing press

Luther translated the bible into German causing people besides priest to be able to read the bible

Luther’s plan was to bring the church back to the right path but it lead to the many interpretations of the scriptures creating tons of new dominations.

The new dominations lead to fighting, leading to religious mayhem

peasants rebelled refused to pay taxes, pledged church lands raised an army at 300,000 people(German peasants revolt)

But luther said the bible was for the spiritual not physical so he pushed for the “faithful” to slay to rebellious people

King henry VIII founded Anglican because he wanted a divorce from his wife and the pope would not give it to him

Royals began to want the power and money for themselves

Reformation was about belief catholics believed Lutherans were heretics and Lutheran believed the Pope and heiarchy were imposters

Important People

Martin Luther-A German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices. He led the Protestant Reformation.

Charles V-the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation

Henry VIII- King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Established the Church of England in 1532.

John Calvin-French theologian. Developed the Christian theology known as Calvinism. Attracted Protestant followers with his teachings. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination

Elizabeth I-Politique who united Protestants and Catholics through compromise

Age of Exploration

Christopher Columbus

Shang He-major figure in ocean voyages

Vasco de Gamma-from portugal, who introduced european to the indian ocean trade network

Indian ocean trade network-dominated by muslim merchants, involved ports in Africa in the middle east, India, Indonesia, China, is made bunch of people very rich

Shang He-muslim, great admiral in Chinese History, between 1405-1433 he lead 7 voyages throughout the indian ocean they were treasure ships(huge ships), 300 of them. Visited africa, india, middle east, he wasn’t an explorer because he already knew the land

China was the leading manufacture of good, china needed prestige and respect

kay tan where they would offer the emperor of chain money for the right to trade with china

China was world leader in naval technology and wanted to dominate trade in the indian ocean

Ended why?

The emperor died and while the next emperor was not as interested in trade rather than protecting china against traditional enemies in an effort to protect chain they built the wall

Vasco de Gamma

Portugal’s main reason for exploring along with de Gamma was to find gold and christians

Portugal has a good amount of coast lines and not a lot of resources

Portugal relied on trade

Prince Henry the Navigator wanted a path to the indian ocean to join the spice trade and to find the kingdom of Prester john(myth)

The school the produced new maps and learning skills of navigation gave an advantage to Portugal for exploration

Vasco de Gamma was the first of Henry’s explorers to make is around Africa and into the india, he made it Calicut(a major trading post on india west coast) in 1498

Captured and controlled some coastal cities creating a trading post empire

Christopher Columbus(spain)

four journeys

first: he landed on san salvador a small island

He convinced Ferdinand and Isabella to fund his expedition by promising conversion of religion(people for a crusade) and money

Ferdinand and Isabella had experts go over his plan, they thought he was crazy or impossible

Ferdinand and Isabella wanted spices and exploration

Columbus returned with nothing but couple christians

With Columbus spain would become a leading power in Europe and very wealthy

Wars on Religion

Catholics vs huguenots

John Calvin created calvinism believing predestination

He also supported baptism and the Eucharist, he believed we should be strictly disciplined

Believed church and state should govern separately

John calvin influenced the church to create a consistory to control church discipline they offered punishment to court

Catholics began to be threatened by the protestants

Duke of Guise who wanted to take over the french throne lead the replacing of King Henry III

War broke out between the Catholics and Huguenots in 1562-1598

Huguenots(french protestants(calvinist)) vs Guise

lead to the death of many Huguenots St. Bartholomew’s day massacre

St. Bartholomew’s day massacre

20,000 huguenots are killed by Catholics

Henry IV(Henry of Navarre)-protestant ruler defeated catholic league

-He’s protestant becoming a ruler of catholics

-so he converts to catholic

Politique-politics over religion, making the people happy

France united first

Henry is going to make the huguenots made because of him converting so he pushed the Edict of Nantes(1598)

Edict of Nantes

-said that huguenots will be tolerated under certain circumstances

Henry creates the House of Bourbons

Important People

Catherine de’ Medici(queen of France)- husband died but she had 3 sons the last of the Valois Dynasty, Catherina had complete authority over her sons, she went back and forth depending on who was wining between the Catholics and Huguenots


Absolute power no influence

divine rights


Had complete control, he brought nobles to court so he could control their lives

Louis believed in Divine Right

Louis continually raised taxes, trading with other countries, and built the palace of versailles

Built the Palace of Versailles to show his worth

Phillip II(May 21, 1527-died September 13, 1598 of cancer)

“Phillip the Prudent” by the beginning of the golden age and ruled one of the biggest empires. He controlled everything including patronage and appointment, caused people to turn against, He endorsed the counter reformation, leading to war,


He gave nobles no authority

Believed in Divine Right, he made all of the discussions

Increased trade in effort to bring in more money

War, he wanted to control the Netherlands which led to revolts, bringing war with England

To show power he build the Escorial

Peter the Great(born June 9, 1672 and died at age 53 on February 8, 1725)

Peter I, focus on technological advances, he hired people to teach his people about advances in technology, wanted Russia to become a powerful European Nation.

Controlled nobles by giving them jobs and not making them pay taxes, he main control but had a council and nine colleges

Money, gained water ports increasing trade and money

War, expanded military to 210,000 men which led to expanding military

grand structures Saint Petersburg as the capital and built a summer and winter palace.

Frederick William(August 15, 1688-died at age 51 on May 31, 1740)

The Great Elector, Solider King, worked to better unify Prussia

Large army

Reestablished destroyed cities and loss in money

Gained many territories

Built Charlottenburg Palace

Scientific Revolution-The intellectual movement in Europe, initially associated with planetary motion and other aspects of physics, that by the seventeenth century had laid the groundwork for modern science.

Important discoveries of Gravity, Skelton and body of the human, and Planetary Motion

A great interest in God’s Handiwork(earth)

Advancements in math and physical thinking

Nicolas Copernicus-Heliocentric theory, planets revolved around the sun and the moon revolved around the earth. Caused questioning of Aristotle’s astronomy, created uncertainty of the human roel in the universe also raised the question where is God at?

René Descartes-separation between mind and matter, cartesian dualism(equal between mind and body). Made scientist view matter as dead, raised the investigation of the body

Sir Francis Bacon-correct scientific method. leads to understanding the natural world, impacted science experiments

Johannes Kepler-Universe was constructed on basis of geometric figures, harmony of human soul was mirrored in the planets, planetary motion laws. Eliminated ideas of uniform circular motion, Ptolemaic system was disproved

Galileo Galilei-Observations of the heavens by telescope. Made people aware of the “new picture of the universe”

Issac Newton-calculus, law of universal gravitation, laws of motion. Explained all motion, world began to be seen largely mechanistic, world seen as a huge machine

Paracelsus-nature derived from fresh observation and experiments, view of the universe based on microcosm analogy, focused on the perfect dosage of chemicals metals and minerals

Enlightenment-France-1700s, power of Human Reason

Human reason could solve the problem in society

Took ideas and methods of scientific revolution and tried to see if there is a way to discovery the natural laws that govern the universe and human society

Issues that were addressed were:Political representation, natural rights, rulers, limits of the rulers, religion, a beneficial society

encyclopedia by Diderot

Diderot thought if people had free access to information you have the ability to question the things that are happening

Voltarie-French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church using satire. He Also believed in religious tolerance.

Baron de Montesquieu-French aristocrat who wanted to limit royal absolutism; Wrote The Spirit of Laws, urging that power be separated between executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each balancing out the others

Jean Jacques Rousseau-A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy, Social Contract, wrote Emile in 1762,

Immanuel Kant-Great German philosopher of Enlightenment-separated science and morality into separate branches of knowledge-science could describe nature, it could not provide a guide for morality. Wrote Critique of Pure Reason

Denis Diderot-Philosopher who edited a the Encyclopedia which was banned by the French king and pope

John Locke-English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property

French Revolution

3 Estates(classes): First state: -Clergy=130,000 people(Exempt from Taille(Taxes) and Ranged from nobility priest to Parish Priest), Second Estate: Nobility=350,000 people, owned 30% of land, Sought to expand power and privilege, lower, power of monarchy, Exempt from Taille,Third estate: commoners Majority of people 80%, owned 40% of land, Serdom gone…well sort of, Skilled Merchants in this class

Enlightenment thinkers began to question the estates and the king

These questioning ideas began to spread

When an increase in taxes among the third estates it began to create riots

Tennis Courts oath

where the third estate was not let into have a say so they go to the indoor tennis courts and declare they are going to ban together until they get what they want, June 20, 1789

Storming of Bastille, July 14, 1789

A rumor that the king was planning a military against the Nation Assembly -18 died, -73 wounded, -7 guards killed, -held 7 prisoners[5 ordinary criminal and 2 madmen]

Night Session August 4, 1789

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, August 26, 1789

The Great Fear: Peasant Revolt, July 20, 1789

Napoleonic Age

Napoleon's Rise to Power!!! The main way Napoleon came to power was through his military ranks. After being appointed Commander of the Army of Italy for protecting the French Government from people who were against the revolution, he quickly began to gain a reputation known for his intelligence and war skills. After a couple wins and losses Napoleon became in charge along with two others of the "First Consul". While in charge of the First Consul Napoleon moved to reform economics, laws, and education. In 1812 everybody loved and knew of Napoleon and he began to pushed to be elected as France's First Emperor.

Napoleon suffered defeat in North Africa at the Battle of the Nile his forced were destroyed

France was defeated on the Italian peninsula, resulting in a great loss of control of Italy

Napoleon wanted another coup

Creation of the First Consul, Napoleon was placed in charge

Napoleon pushed for reform

Napoleon made peace between France and and other European countries

Napoleon wanted to invade England but because of his defeat at the Mediterranean

Napoleon began to continually loose battle, in this he lost both men and money

Th Fall of Napoleon...twice. The beginning of the Russian campaign that would end in complete disaster and Napoleons retreat in Russia because of the winter in Russia causing freezing temperatures, hunger, disease, and the violence and attacks from the Russians. He was imprisoned on the island of Elba March 20, 1814 and would later escaped from the island a year later. A year after his escaped he was defeated at the battle of Waterloo where he would then be imprisoned on an island father away from France in hopes of no way of him escaping called St. Helena.

Napoleon was exiled to Elba first but he escaped

Later he was exiled again to further island of St Helena

Where he would die of stomach cancer May 5, 1821

Industrial Revolution

Industrial England “Workshop of the World”

Natural philosophy is science

Mine and Forge [1840-1880] -More powerful than water is coal, -more powerful than wood is iron, -innovations make still feasible., -‘Puddling[1820]- “pig Iron”, -“Hot blast” [1829]-cheaper,purr still, -Bessemer process[1856] -strong flexible steel

Evolution of the Congress of Vienna. -The congress of Vienna was criticized for ignoring the liberal and nationalist aspirations of so many peoples, -The leading statesmen at Vienna underestimated the new nationalism and liberalism generated by the French Revolution, -Not until the unification of Germany in 1879-71 was the balance of power upset and no unification

The principle of collective security was established: -The Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle[1816], -The Congress of Troppau[1820], -The Congress of Laibach[1821], -The Congress of Verona[1822]

Conservatism was a reaction to the French Revolution, antiviolence movement.

Support for conservatism: came from the traditional ruling class, also supported by the peasants.

Greek Revolution[1821]-Greek war of independence

The principle of intervention is the Idea that the great powers(England Prussia, Austria, Russia)have the right to use military force to restore order in countries threatened by revolution.

Age of Revolution

The 1830 Revolution: -Belgium, -France, -Poland and -Austria

no direct heir-> dynastic crisis: -Constantine married a non royal,-Nicolas named by alexander I, -Troops took oath to Nicolas, -December 26, 1825-> Moscow marched into the senate square St Petersburg

refuse to take oath.

Wanted Constantine

Nicolas ordered the calvary and artillery to attack the insurgents

Louis XVIII governed France as a Constitutional Monarch

France divided by people who accepted the France Revolution

King Charles takes over France after Louis XVIII

-wanted Bourgeois gone

-put church back in charge of Education

1830 Election brought in another liberal

July ordinances

-dissolved parliament

-only conservation could win

Louis Philippe-> “Citizen King”

-Duke of Orleans

-Relative to Bourbons

-Bourgeois life

One revolution lead to all the other it was a domino affect

Unity and Nationalism

Unification of Germany

Otto Von Bismarck lead German unification movement

Danish war

Started over duchies

Austria and Prussia Divided the Duchies land

Franco-prussian War

- Otto Von Bismarck (Germany) vs Napoleon III (France)

- Seven Weeks War- Prussia defeats Austria, Prussia gained power over German states, France’s power in Europe was threatened

- Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces, defeated Napoleon (Battle of Leipzig)

- The War ended French power in Europe

- Germany is unified

Otto Von Bismarck

Bismarck created the first welfare state in the modern world, with the goal of gaining working class support that might otherwise go to his Socialist enemies.

--Bismarck became a hero to german nationalists; they built many monuments honoring the founder of the new Reich.


unified between 1862 & 1871

- Otto Von Bismarck

- Danish War (1862- Prussia and Bismarck; Bismarck joined forces with Austria; Prussia won; united German descent from Schleswig)

- Austria- Prussian War (1866-Prussia and Austria; argument over rights of passage to Holstein; Italy aids Prussia; Bismarck isolated Austria; Prussia won; German states added to Prussia; North German Confederation)

Franco- Prussian War (1870; Prussia fully supported by southern states; Prussia won)

- Otto von Bismarck’s policies to unite the Germans

- stronger army built by Bismarck

- German people working together against other forces (Otto Von Bismarck)

- nationalism

Unification of Italy

The leader of the Italy pushed for the unification causing them to become unified


* The growth in money aloud Cavour to pour money into

making a larger army.

* Cavour joined Britain and France against Russia in the

Crimean War, but he agreed on a secret deal with Napoleon to help fight Austria in a War. As a result the war he took over Lombardy.


* Raised an army of a thousand red shirts that gained him control of most of Sicily and creating a win for the Italians.

* Cavour then organized a Plebiscite and people voted to be unified

with Piedmont.

Third Republic in France

Collapse of 2nd Republic

France continued to fight but would loose on January 28, 1871

End of the Treaty of Frankfurt would end the Franco-Prussian war

Adolfe Thiers: first president & a republican

○ Too conservative.

○ Too royalist.

○ Too ready to accept a humiliating peace with Prussia.

Prussian troops marched into Paris March 1871

New government: - The President was the head of state and had little political power, - Senate (Chamber of Agriculture): elected every 9 years, - he Chamber of Deputies: chosen every 4 years

Paris Commune

* Commune wanted to govern Paris separately from the rest of France

* Suppressed by government troops led by Marshal Patrice MacMahon

during the last week of May, 1871, Known as Bloody Week

The Boulanger Affair

Welfare To troops (Led To Popularity)

The Panama Canal Scandal

- Success with Suez Canal led to Ferdinand de Lesseps being over the Company which built the Panama Canal

- Debt was hidden from the public

The Dreyfus Affair

- Military falsely accuses Alfred Dreyfus, a jew, with supplying secrets to Germany.

- Major Esterhazy was real culprit

- Public opinion in France was divided.

Paris Exposition

* World’s Fair held in honor of the French Revolution Centennial.

* The Eiffel Tower was the entrance

Social structure

Upperclass wealthy elite, Plutocrats, no titles wealthy

Autocrats would marry aristocrats because they have titles

Middle classes, rich workers, lower class 80%, agricultural laborers and urban workers, working class

Role of women inferior to men

debate about what they were supposed to do

mass education

Primary school established

child labor so less attendance


became popular

relaxing to read

people read westerns

Music/tourism/Dance halls

Upper and middle classes created tourism

Worker given paid vacations

Team sports: rules and regulation, teamwork and individual skills were improved, and Rugby

Population Growth: rise in birth rate

decrease in Death because of medicine and environments

Living conditions improved: water supply was clean, sewage more piping, and health care act


Domination of another country politically and economically

Started to spread once colonies started to break away

Started because European countries lost their grip on colonies in the Americas, resources were needed, and Africa was easy to exploit

Countries involved: Britain, France, Portugal, Spain, Germany, and Italy

Dr Livingstone: Missionary and then later explorer and he found areas in Africa that were never discovered before

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